Background: Sepsis triggers dysfunction of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) that contributes to organ failure and death. Fondaparinux (FPX) is a synthetic pentasaccharide that binds to antithrombin (AT) and selectively inhibits factor (F) Xa and other upstream coagulation proteases but not thrombin (T). Objectives: We used a baboon model of lethal Escherichia coli sepsis to investigate the effects of FPX treatment on DIC, organ function, and outcome. Methods: Two experimental groups were studied: (a) E. coli challenge (n = 4); and (b) E coli plus FPX (n = 4). Bacteremia was modeled by intravenous infusion of pathogen (1-2 × 1010 CFU/kg). Fondaparinux (0.08 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously, 3 h prior to and 8 h after bacteria infusion. Results: Bacteremia rapidly increased plasma levels of inhibitory complexes of AT with coagulation proteases. Activation markers of both intrinsic (FXIa-AT), and extrinsic (FVIIa-AT) pathways were significantly reduced in FPX-treated animals. Factor Xa-AT and TAT complexes were maximal at 4 to 8 h post challenge and reduced >50% in FPX-treated animals. Fibrinogen consumption, fibrin generation and degradation, neutrophil and complement activation, and cytokine production were strongly induced by sepsis. All parameters were significantly reduced, while platelet count was unchanged by the treatment. Fondaparinux infusion attenuated organ dysfunction, prolonged survival, and saved two of four challenged animals (log-rank Mantel-Cox test, P =.0067). Conclusion: Our data indicate that FPX-mediated inhibition of coagulation prevents sepsis coagulopathy; protects against excessive complement activation, inflammation, and organ dysfunction; and provides survival benefit in E. coli sepsis.
- disseminated intravascular coagulation
- Escherichia coli
- nonhuman primates
ASJC Scopus subject areas