Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing, gagging, fatigue, or emesis, resulting in the child to stop eating and to develop behaviors that make it difficult, if not impossible, for a parent to feed their child. In addition, limited experiences with oral intake related to the medical or physical conditions, or other variables such as prematurity, often result in a failure of the child's oral motor skills to develop normally. For example, a child with Pierre Robin sequence may be unable to successfully feed orally, initially, due to micrognathia and glossoptosis. Oral-motor dysfunction may develop as a result of both anatomical problems, (e.g., cleft lip/palate), lack of experience (e.g., s/p. surgery), or oral motor abnormalities (e.g., brain malformation). Neuromotor coordination impairments such as those associated with Down syndrome (e.g., hypotonia, poor tongue control, and open mouth posture) frequently interfere with the acquisition of effective oral-motor skills and lead to feeding difficulties. Management of these phenomena is frequently possible, if an appropriate feeding plan exist that allows for three primary factors: (1) feeding program must be safe, (2) feeding program must support optimal growth, and (3) feeding program must be realistic. Researchers have demonstrated the utility of behavioral approaches in the treatment of feeding disorders, such as manipulations in the presentation of foods and drink and consequences for food refusal and acceptance (e.g., praise, extinction, contingent access to preferred foods). However, because a child's failure to eat is not frequently the result of a single cause, evaluation and treatment are typically conducted by an interdisciplinary team usually consisting of a behavioral psychologist, pediatric gastroenterologist, speech pathologist, nutrition, and sometimes other disciplines. This chapter provides an overview of some of the feeding difficulties experience by some of the more common genetic disorders including identification, interventions, and management.
- Feeding dysfunction
- Genetic syndromes
- Swallowing difficulty
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health