Feasibility of a Modified Ride-on Car Intervention on Play Behaviors during an Inclusive Playgroup

Samantha Mae Ross, Michele Catena, Erica Twardzik, Christina Hospodar, Erika Cook, Apoorva Ayyagari, Kelsey Inskeep, Bethany Sloane, Megan MacDonald, Samuel W. Logan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Aims: Children with mobility related disabilities often experience limited participation and access to social interactions. An emerging pediatric powered mobility device are modified ride-on cars that provide self-directed mobility experiences to children with disabilities. This study aimed to determine: (1) the feasibility of a modified ride-on car intervention during an inclusive playgroup, (2) the effect of a modified ride-on car intervention on the play behaviors of children with and without mobility related disabilities. Method: A single-subject research design was implemented. Thirteen children participated in a weekly inclusive playgroup. The five children with mobility related disabilities were provided modified ride-on cars during the intervention. Children's play behaviors were classified with Howes' Peer Play Scale. Intervention effects were examined using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP). Results: The intervention was feasible based on participants' good attendance, retention rates, and successful use of modified ride-on cars. Overall children did not experience significant changes in play behaviors, with a few exceptions for decreased solitary, and increased parallel play, and/or direct peer interaction, among children with mobility related disabilities. Future research could examine modified ride-on car use by children with mobility related disabilities focusing on changes in unique play interactions between children with and without disabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-509
Number of pages17
JournalPhysical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 20 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • disability
  • inclusion
  • mobility assistive device
  • mobility impairment
  • toddlers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Occupational Therapy


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