We assessed ferumoxytol-enhanced brain MRI to identify monocyte/macrophage accumulation in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Four HIV-infected subjects with undetectable HIV RNA levels on antiretroviral therapy, HIV DNA level in CD14+ cells ≥10 copies/106 cells, and cognitive impairment underwent ferumoxytol-enhanced brain MRI. On post-ferumoxytol susceptibility-weighted images, all HIV-infected subjects demonstrated a diffuse "tram track" appearance in the perivascular regions of cortical and deep white matter vessels suggesting ferumoxytol uptake in monocytes/ macrophages. This finding was not present in an HIV-seronegative control. While ferumoxytol may have potential as an imaging biomarker for monocyte/macrophage accumulation in patients with HAND, future study is needed.
- HIV dementia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience