Purpose: Several studies have investigated the feasibility of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) after reduced-intensity conditioning in patients who experienced relapse after myeloablative HCT. Although most studies showed relatively low nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates and encouraging short-term results, it has yet to be defined which patients would benefit most from these approaches. Patients and Methods: We analyzed data from 147 patients with hematologic malignancies who experienced treatment failure with conventional autologous (n = 135), allogeneic (n = 10), or syngeneic (n = 2) HCT and were treated with HLA-matched related (n = 62) or unrelated (n = 85) grafts after conditioning with 2 Gy of total-body irradiation with or without fludarabine. Results: Three-year probabilities of NRM, relapse, and overall survival were 32%, 48%, and 27%, respectively, for related recipients, and 28%, 44%, and 44%, respectively, for unrelated recipients. The best outcomes were observed in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, whereas patients with multiple myeloma and Hodgkin's disease had worse outcomes as a result of high incidences of relapse and progression. Being in partial remission (PR) or complete remission (CR) at HCT (P = .002) and developing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; P = .03) resulted in lower risks of relapse and progression. Factors associated with better overall survival were PR or CR (P = .01) and lack of comorbidity (P = .03) at HCT and absence of acute GVHD after HCT (P = .06). Conclusion: Encouraging outcomes were seen with allogeneic HCT after nonmyeloablative conditioning in selected patients who had experienced relapse after a high-dose HCT, particularly in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Results with unrelated grafts were comparable with results with related grafts.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research