Extracellular volume expansion and delayed resolution of hypertension after canine aortic coarctectomy

Curtis G. Wickre, Gerald M. Baur, Jan Wong, Janice Woodruff, Susan P. Bagby

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Abstract

The hemodynamic changes occuring after surgical correction of thoracic aortic coarctation were studied in two neonatally coarcted dogs at six months of age and compared to sham surgery in two littermate controls. Excision of the tight iatrogenic aortic band with direct aortic reanastomosis abolished pressure gradients. Post-coarctectomy systemic pressure rose, after an early transient fall, to pre-operative proximal levels and was sustained for two to four weeks before decreasing to control normotensive values. Femoral systolic pressure (and renal perfusion pressure) rose by 47-57 mmHg in coarcted dogs (p<.001). Extracellular volume (ECV) increased in both coarcted animals, peaking 28-32 cc/kg (7.1-7.6% increase) above precoarctectomy levels. Peak ECV expansion coincided with the peak post-coarctectomy blood pressure. Fluid administration, blood losses and plasma renin activity (PRA) were comparable in all animals. Post-coarctectomy tachycardia was also noted in coarcted dogs (p<.001), whereas neither ECV nor heart rate changes occured in control animals. We postulate that post-coarctectomy baroreceptor stimulation results in sympathetically-mediated renal sodium retention, not only preventing a pressure diuresis, but resulting in overt volume expansion. Failure of PRA suppression despite increased distal pressure and volume excess may also reflect sympathetic activation. Data are compatible with the view that sympathetic activation and consequent volume expansion transiently sustain hypertension in the post-coarctectomy setting until baroreceptor re-adjustments permits normalization of blood pressure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1197-1206
Number of pages10
JournalLife Sciences
Volume32
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 14 1983

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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