Expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 in neurons is not requisite for the induction of sickness behavior by interleukin-1β

Theodore P. Braun, Aaron Grossberg, Biliana O. Veleva-Rotse, Julia Maxson, Marek Szumowski, Anthony Barnes, Daniel Marks

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Abstract

Background: Animals respond to inflammation by suppressing normal high-energy activities, including feeding and locomotion, in favor of diverting resources to the immune response. The cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) inhibits normal feeding and locomotor activity (LMA) via its actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Behavioral changes in response to IL-1β are mediated by myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in non-hematopoietic cells. It is unknown whether IL-1β acts directly on neurons or requires transduction by non-neuronal cells.Methods: The Nestin-cre mouse was crossed with MyD88lox mice to delete MyD88 from neurons and glia in the CNS (MyD88ΔCNS). These mice were compared to total body MyD88KO and wild type (WT) mice. Mice had cannulae stereotactically placed in the lateral ventricle and telemetry transponders implanted into the peritoneum. Mice were treated with either intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) IL-1β (10 ng) or vehicle. Food intake, body weight and LMA were continuously monitored for 24 h after treatment. I.c.v. tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a MyD88-independent cytokine, was used to control for normal immune development. Peripheral inflammation was modeled using intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Groups were compared using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test. Efficacy of recombination was evaluated using tdTomato reporter mice crossed with the Nestin-cre mouse. MyD88 deletion was confirmed by Western blot.Results: I.c.v. IL-1β treatment caused a significant reduction in feeding, body weight and LMA in WT mice. MyD88KO mice were protected from these changes in response to i.c.v. IL-1β despite having intact behavioral responses to TNF. Cre-mediated recombination was observed in neurons and astrocytes, but not microglia or endothelial cells. In contrast to MyD88KO mice, the behavioral responses of MyD88ΔCNS mice to i.c.v. IL-1β or intraperitoneal (i.p.) LPS were indistinguishable from those of WT mice.Conclusion: Sickness behavior is mediated by MyD88 and is dependent on the activity of cytokines within the brain. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 is not required in neurons or astrocytes to induce this behavioral response to IL-1β or LPS. This suggests that a non-Nestin expressing cell population responds to IL-1β in the CNS and transduces the signal to neurons controlling feeding and activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number229
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 3 2012

Fingerprint

Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88
Illness Behavior
Interleukin-1
Interleukin-1beta
Neurons
Locomotion
Lipopolysaccharides
Nestin
Central Nervous System
Cytokines
Astrocytes
Genetic Recombination
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Body Weight
Inflammation
Telemetry
Lateral Ventricles
Peritoneum
Microglia

Keywords

  • Cachexia
  • Cytokines
  • Hypothalamus
  • IL-1β
  • Inflammation
  • Lethargy
  • MyD88
  • Sickness behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Immunology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

@article{e09c534439724d86b75866d5e8f73ba6,
title = "Expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 in neurons is not requisite for the induction of sickness behavior by interleukin-1β",
abstract = "Background: Animals respond to inflammation by suppressing normal high-energy activities, including feeding and locomotion, in favor of diverting resources to the immune response. The cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) inhibits normal feeding and locomotor activity (LMA) via its actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Behavioral changes in response to IL-1β are mediated by myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in non-hematopoietic cells. It is unknown whether IL-1β acts directly on neurons or requires transduction by non-neuronal cells.Methods: The Nestin-cre mouse was crossed with MyD88lox mice to delete MyD88 from neurons and glia in the CNS (MyD88ΔCNS). These mice were compared to total body MyD88KO and wild type (WT) mice. Mice had cannulae stereotactically placed in the lateral ventricle and telemetry transponders implanted into the peritoneum. Mice were treated with either intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) IL-1β (10 ng) or vehicle. Food intake, body weight and LMA were continuously monitored for 24 h after treatment. I.c.v. tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a MyD88-independent cytokine, was used to control for normal immune development. Peripheral inflammation was modeled using intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Groups were compared using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test. Efficacy of recombination was evaluated using tdTomato reporter mice crossed with the Nestin-cre mouse. MyD88 deletion was confirmed by Western blot.Results: I.c.v. IL-1β treatment caused a significant reduction in feeding, body weight and LMA in WT mice. MyD88KO mice were protected from these changes in response to i.c.v. IL-1β despite having intact behavioral responses to TNF. Cre-mediated recombination was observed in neurons and astrocytes, but not microglia or endothelial cells. In contrast to MyD88KO mice, the behavioral responses of MyD88ΔCNS mice to i.c.v. IL-1β or intraperitoneal (i.p.) LPS were indistinguishable from those of WT mice.Conclusion: Sickness behavior is mediated by MyD88 and is dependent on the activity of cytokines within the brain. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 is not required in neurons or astrocytes to induce this behavioral response to IL-1β or LPS. This suggests that a non-Nestin expressing cell population responds to IL-1β in the CNS and transduces the signal to neurons controlling feeding and activity.",
keywords = "Cachexia, Cytokines, Hypothalamus, IL-1β, Inflammation, Lethargy, MyD88, Sickness behavior",
author = "Braun, {Theodore P.} and Aaron Grossberg and Veleva-Rotse, {Biliana O.} and Julia Maxson and Marek Szumowski and Anthony Barnes and Daniel Marks",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1186/1742-2094-9-229",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
journal = "Journal of Neuroinflammation",
issn = "1742-2094",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 in neurons is not requisite for the induction of sickness behavior by interleukin-1β

AU - Braun, Theodore P.

AU - Grossberg, Aaron

AU - Veleva-Rotse, Biliana O.

AU - Maxson, Julia

AU - Szumowski, Marek

AU - Barnes, Anthony

AU - Marks, Daniel

PY - 2012/10/3

Y1 - 2012/10/3

N2 - Background: Animals respond to inflammation by suppressing normal high-energy activities, including feeding and locomotion, in favor of diverting resources to the immune response. The cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) inhibits normal feeding and locomotor activity (LMA) via its actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Behavioral changes in response to IL-1β are mediated by myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in non-hematopoietic cells. It is unknown whether IL-1β acts directly on neurons or requires transduction by non-neuronal cells.Methods: The Nestin-cre mouse was crossed with MyD88lox mice to delete MyD88 from neurons and glia in the CNS (MyD88ΔCNS). These mice were compared to total body MyD88KO and wild type (WT) mice. Mice had cannulae stereotactically placed in the lateral ventricle and telemetry transponders implanted into the peritoneum. Mice were treated with either intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) IL-1β (10 ng) or vehicle. Food intake, body weight and LMA were continuously monitored for 24 h after treatment. I.c.v. tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a MyD88-independent cytokine, was used to control for normal immune development. Peripheral inflammation was modeled using intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Groups were compared using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test. Efficacy of recombination was evaluated using tdTomato reporter mice crossed with the Nestin-cre mouse. MyD88 deletion was confirmed by Western blot.Results: I.c.v. IL-1β treatment caused a significant reduction in feeding, body weight and LMA in WT mice. MyD88KO mice were protected from these changes in response to i.c.v. IL-1β despite having intact behavioral responses to TNF. Cre-mediated recombination was observed in neurons and astrocytes, but not microglia or endothelial cells. In contrast to MyD88KO mice, the behavioral responses of MyD88ΔCNS mice to i.c.v. IL-1β or intraperitoneal (i.p.) LPS were indistinguishable from those of WT mice.Conclusion: Sickness behavior is mediated by MyD88 and is dependent on the activity of cytokines within the brain. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 is not required in neurons or astrocytes to induce this behavioral response to IL-1β or LPS. This suggests that a non-Nestin expressing cell population responds to IL-1β in the CNS and transduces the signal to neurons controlling feeding and activity.

AB - Background: Animals respond to inflammation by suppressing normal high-energy activities, including feeding and locomotion, in favor of diverting resources to the immune response. The cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) inhibits normal feeding and locomotor activity (LMA) via its actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Behavioral changes in response to IL-1β are mediated by myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in non-hematopoietic cells. It is unknown whether IL-1β acts directly on neurons or requires transduction by non-neuronal cells.Methods: The Nestin-cre mouse was crossed with MyD88lox mice to delete MyD88 from neurons and glia in the CNS (MyD88ΔCNS). These mice were compared to total body MyD88KO and wild type (WT) mice. Mice had cannulae stereotactically placed in the lateral ventricle and telemetry transponders implanted into the peritoneum. Mice were treated with either intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) IL-1β (10 ng) or vehicle. Food intake, body weight and LMA were continuously monitored for 24 h after treatment. I.c.v. tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a MyD88-independent cytokine, was used to control for normal immune development. Peripheral inflammation was modeled using intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Groups were compared using two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test. Efficacy of recombination was evaluated using tdTomato reporter mice crossed with the Nestin-cre mouse. MyD88 deletion was confirmed by Western blot.Results: I.c.v. IL-1β treatment caused a significant reduction in feeding, body weight and LMA in WT mice. MyD88KO mice were protected from these changes in response to i.c.v. IL-1β despite having intact behavioral responses to TNF. Cre-mediated recombination was observed in neurons and astrocytes, but not microglia or endothelial cells. In contrast to MyD88KO mice, the behavioral responses of MyD88ΔCNS mice to i.c.v. IL-1β or intraperitoneal (i.p.) LPS were indistinguishable from those of WT mice.Conclusion: Sickness behavior is mediated by MyD88 and is dependent on the activity of cytokines within the brain. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 is not required in neurons or astrocytes to induce this behavioral response to IL-1β or LPS. This suggests that a non-Nestin expressing cell population responds to IL-1β in the CNS and transduces the signal to neurons controlling feeding and activity.

KW - Cachexia

KW - Cytokines

KW - Hypothalamus

KW - IL-1β

KW - Inflammation

KW - Lethargy

KW - MyD88

KW - Sickness behavior

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U2 - 10.1186/1742-2094-9-229

DO - 10.1186/1742-2094-9-229

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Journal of Neuroinflammation

JF - Journal of Neuroinflammation

SN - 1742-2094

M1 - 229

ER -