Calpain-10 (CAPN10) is the first type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene to be identified through a genome scan, with polymorphisms being associated with altered CAPN10 expression. Functional data have been hitherto elusive, but we report here a corresponding increase between CAPN10 expression level and regulated insulin secretion. Pancreatic β-cell secretory granule exocytosis is mediated by the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment receptor protein complex of synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), syntaxin 1, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2. We report, for the first time, direct binding of a calpain-10 isoform with members of this complex. Furthermore, SNAP-25 undergoes a Ca2+-dependent partial proteolysis during exocytosis, with calpain protease inhibitor similarly suppressing both insulin secretion and SNAP-25 proteolysis. Based upon these findings, we postulate that an isoform of calpain-10 is a Ca2+-sensor that functions to trigger exocytosis in pancreatic β-cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology