Evidence for multiple genetic factors underlying the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence

K. S. Kendler, S. H. Aggen, C. A. Prescott, John Jr Crabbe, M. C. Neale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To determine the number of genetic factors underlying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for alcohol dependence (AD), we conducted structural equation twin modeling for seven AD criteria, plus two summary screening questions, in 7133 personally interviewed male and female twins from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders, who reported lifetime alcohol consumption. The best-fit twin model required three genetic and two unique environmental common factors, and criterion-specific unique environmental factors. The first genetic factor was defined by high loadings for the probe question about quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, and tolerance criterion. The second genetic factor loaded strongly on the probe question about self-recognition of alcohol-related problems and AD criteria for loss of control, desire to quit, preoccupation and activities given up. The third genetic factor had high loadings for withdrawal and continued use despite the problems criteria. Genetic factor scores derived from these three factors differentially predicted patterns of comorbidity, educational status and other historical/clinical features of AD. The DSM-IV syndrome of AD does not reflect a single dimension of genetic liability, rather, these criteria reflect three underlying dimensions that index risk for: (i) tolerance and heavy use; (ii) loss of control with alcohol associated social dysfunction and (iii) withdrawal and continued use despite problems. While tentative and in need of replication, these results, consistent with the rodent literature, were validated by examining predictions of the genetic factor scores and have implications for gene-finding efforts in AD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1306-1315
Number of pages10
JournalMolecular Psychiatry
Volume17
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2012

Fingerprint

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Alcoholism
Alcohol Drinking
Alcohols
Educational Status
Twin Studies
Substance-Related Disorders
Psychiatry
Comorbidity
Rodentia
Genes

Keywords

  • alcohol dependence
  • diagnostic criteria
  • DSM-IV
  • genetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Evidence for multiple genetic factors underlying the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. / Kendler, K. S.; Aggen, S. H.; Prescott, C. A.; Crabbe, John Jr; Neale, M. C.

In: Molecular Psychiatry, Vol. 17, No. 12, 12.2012, p. 1306-1315.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kendler, K. S. ; Aggen, S. H. ; Prescott, C. A. ; Crabbe, John Jr ; Neale, M. C. / Evidence for multiple genetic factors underlying the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. In: Molecular Psychiatry. 2012 ; Vol. 17, No. 12. pp. 1306-1315.
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