X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a nonprogressive retinal disorder characterized by disturbed or absent night vision; its clinical features may also include myopia, nystagmus, and impaired visual acuity. X-linked CSNB is clinically heterogeneous, and it may also he genetically heterogeneous. We have studied 32 families with X-linked CSNB, including 11 families with the complete form of CSNB and 21 families with the incomplete form of CSNB, to identify genetic-recombination events that would refine the location of the disease genes. Critical recombination events in the set of families with complete CSNB have localized a disease gene to the region between DXS556 and DXS8083, in Xp11.4-p11.3. Critical recombination events in the set of families with incomplete CSNB have localized a disease gene to the region between DXS722 and DXS8023, in Xp11.23. Further analysis of the incomplete-CSNB families, by means of disease-associated-haplotype construction, identified 17 families, of apparent Mennonite ancestry, that share portions of an ancestral chromosome. Results of this analysis refined the location of the gene for incomplete CSNB to the region between DXS722 and DXS255, a distance of 1.2 Mb. Genetic and clinical analyses of this set of 32 families with X-linked CSNB, together with the family studies reported in the literature, strongly suggest that two loci, one for complete (CSNB1) and one for incomplete (CSNB2) X-linked CSNB, can account for all reported mapping information.
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