Evaluation of serum cytokine release in response to hand-assisted, laparoscopic, and open surgery in a porcine model

Sean B. Orenstein, Gordie K. Kaban, Demetrius E. Litwin, Yuri W. Novitsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Although the immunologic benefits of laparoscopic surgery have been established, effects from hand-assisted (HA) surgery have not been investigated thoroughly. We hypothesized that the HA approach maintains the immunologic advantage of laparoscopic surgery compared with the open (O) approach. Methods: Six O, HA, and laparoscopic (L) transabdominal left nephrectomies were performed on pigs. Blood samples were taken preoperatively, perioperatively, and postoperatively, and serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels were measured. Results: At 24 hours after surgery, interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the O group vs the HA and L groups (82.2 vs 37.5 and 29.9 pg/mL, respectively; P <.05). Similar trends were seen at all time periods for both IL-6 and C-reactive protein. No significant differences in postoperative cytokine levels were detected between the HA and L groups. Conclusions: The HA approach mimics the immunologic effects of laparoscopic surgery. These data suggest that the HA technique resulted in a reduced systemic immune activation in the early perioperative period when compared with open surgery. In addition to clinical benefits of minimal access, the HA approach also may afford patients an immunologic advantage over laparotomy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-102
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican journal of surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • C-reactive protein
  • Cytokine
  • Hand-assisted
  • Immunology
  • Interleukin-6
  • Laparoscopy
  • Laparotomy
  • Nephrectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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