Root thickness in the mesial canals of lower first and second molars was compared before and after flaring by using a muffle system. Gates Glidden burs or M-Series Canal Openers were used with either a straight up-and-down motion or with an anticurvature motion. It was found that Gates Glidden burs used straight up and down removed statistically more dentin at the level of the furcation than Canal Openers used straight up and down or in an anticurvature fashion. At a level 2 mm apical to the furcation, Gates Glidden burs used in an anticurvature fashion removed statistically more dentin than any other method tested.
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