Evaluation of pseudoprogression in patients with glioblastoma multiforme using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with ferumoxytol calls RANO criteria into question

Morad Nasseri, Seymur Gahramanov, Joao Prola Netto, Rongwei Fu, Leslie L. Muldoon, Csanad Varallyay, Bronwyn E. Hamilton, Edward A. Neuwelt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Scopus citations


Background Diagnosis of pseudoprogression in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is limited by Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria to 3 months after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Frequency of pseudoprogression occurring beyond this time limit was determined. Survival comparison was made between pseudoprogression and true progression patients as determined by using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with ferumoxytol (p-MRI-Fe). Methods Fifty-six patients with GBM who demonstrated conventional findings concerning for progression of disease post CRT were enrolled in institutional review board-approved MRI protocols. Dynamic susceptibility- weighted contrast-enhanced p-MRI-Fe was used to distinguish true progression from pseudoprogression using relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values. rCBV of 1.75 was assigned as the cutoff value. Participants were followed up using RANO criteria, and survival data were analyzed. Results Twenty-seven participants (48.2%) experienced pseudoprogression. Pseudoprogression occurred later than 3 months post CRT in 8 (29.6%) of these 27 participants (ie, 8 [14.3%] of the 56 patients meeting the inclusion criteria). Overall survival was significantly longer in participants with pseudoprogression (35.2 months) compared with those who never experienced pseudoprogression (14.3 months; P <. 001). Conclusions Pseudoprogression presented after 3 months post CRT in a considerable portion of patients with GBM, which raises doubts about the value of the 3-month time limit of the RANO criteria. Accurate rCBV measurement (eg, p-MRI-Fe) is suggested when there are radiographical concerns about progression of disease in GBM patients, regardless of any time limit. Pseudoprogression correlates with significantly better survival outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1146-1154
Number of pages9
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2014



  • Ferumoxytol
  • GBM
  • Perfusion-MRI
  • Pseudoprogression
  • RANO criteria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this