Importance: Although outcome of surgical resection of liver metastases from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) has been extensively studied, little is known about surgery for locally advanced PNETs; it was listed recently by the European neuroendocrine tumor society as a major unmet need. Objective: To evaluate the outcome of patients who underwent surgery for locally aggressive PNETs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective single-center case series reviewed consecutive patients who underwent resection of T3/T4 PNETs at a single academic institution. Data collection occurred from 2003 to 2018. Data analysis was performed in August 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disease-free survival (primary outcome) and overall mortality (secondary outcome) were assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Recurrence risk (secondary outcome, defined as identification of tumor recurrence on imaging) was assessed with Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for covariates. Results: In this case series, 99 patients with locally advanced nondistant metastatic PNET (56 men [57%]) with a mean (SEM) age of 57.0 (1.4) years and a mean (SEM) follow-up of 5.3 (0.1) years underwent surgically aggressive resections. Of those, 4 patients (4%) underwent preoperative neoadjuvant treatment (including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy and chemotherapy); 18 patients (18%) underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, 68 patients (69%) had distal or subtotal pancreatic resection, 10 patients (10%) had total resection, and 3 patients (3%) had other pancreatic procedures. Additional organ resection was required in 86 patients (87%): spleen (71 patients [71%]), major blood vessel (17 patients [17%]), bowel (2 patients [2%]), stomach (4 patients [4%]), and kidney (2 patients [2%]). Five-year disease-free survival was 61% (61 patients) and 5-year overall survival was 91% (91 patients). Of those living, 75 patients (76%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of less than or equal to 1 at last followup. Lymph node involvement (HR, 7.66; 95% CI, 2.78-21.12; P < .001), additional organ resected (HR, 6.15; 95% CI, 1.61-23.55; P = .008), and male sex (HR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.68-8.97; P = .003) were associated with increased risk of recurrence. Functional tumors had a lower risk of recurrence (HR, 0.23; CI, 0.06-0.89; P = .03). Required resection of blood vessels was not associated with a significant increase recurrence risk. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series, positive lymph node involvement and resection of organs with tumor involvement were associated with an increased recurrence risk. These subgroups may require adjuvant systemic treatment. These findings suggest that patients with locally advanced PNETs who undergo surgical resection have excellent disease-free and overall survival.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||JAMA Network Open|
|State||Published - Nov 2 2020|
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