Early life predictors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are critically needed; they could inform etiological theory and may help identify new prevention targets. The current study examined prospectively whether maternal cytokine levels during pregnancy predict offspring ADHD symptoms at age 4–6 years. Secondarily, we evaluated maternal cytokine levels as a possible common pathway through which prenatal risks exert influence on child ADHD. Data came from a sample of women recruited during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy (N = 62) and followed postnatally until children were 4–6 years old. Maternal inflammation was assessed using 3rd trimester plasma concentrations of three indicators of nuclear factor kappa B signaling: interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 which were combined into a latent variable. Mothers and teachers reported on child ADHD symptoms, negative affect, and externalizing behaviors at 48–72 months of age. Maternal inflammation in the 3rd trimester predicted ADHD symptoms when children were 4–6 years old (β = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.154, 0.905, p = 0.006). Further, maternal inflammation mediated the effect of prenatal distress on child ADHD (β = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.007, 0.419, p = 0.04). The inflammation effect on ADHD was not explained by concurrent child negative affect, externalizing behavior, or familial ADHD status. This is the first human study to prospectively link maternal pregnancy cytokine levels and offspring ADHD symptoms, suggesting that cytokine levels are a possible marker of ADHD risk. Results also provide new evidence that maternal prenatal inflammation may be one common pathway by which prenatal risk factors influence offspring mental health outcomes.
- Prenatal distress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
- Behavioral Neuroscience