Preliminary 2-D SRI results from a porcine heart model showed significant average residual accumulation error (RAE) in the total displacement, similar to widely reported baseline drift artifacts in SRI [1-2]. Therefore, to understand the performance of 2-D SRI methods in a controlled 3-D environment, a left-ventricle simulation model with physiological deformation was developed. Torsion was added to move tissue in and out of the image plane. A phasedarray imaging system was simulated to generate 2-D image sequences for typical cardiac scans. Results show the presence of RAE, which reaches a minimum at a frame rate (FR) of 75 frame/cycle corresponding to 2-3% peak frame-to-frame strain. RAE increases as torsion increases. In addition, the RAE map also spatially correlates well with both out-of-plane motion and cross-correlation coefficient maps. These results suggest that out-of-plane motion plays a significant role in RAE. To optimize SNR in displacement estimates, a retrospective processing strategy employing different frame intervals for different periods in a cardiac cycle is presented.