Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pregnancy is associated with high fetal mortality rates. A small percentage of DKA occurs in the absence of high glucose levels seen in traditional DKA. Prompt recognition and management is crucial. We report a case of a 30-year-old pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus admitted with euglycemic DKA (blood glucose <200 mg/dL). Initial laboratory testing revealed a severe anion gap acidosis with pH 7.11, anion gap 23, elevated β-hydroxybutyric acid of 9.60 mmol/L, and a blood glucose of 183 mg/dL - surprisingly low given her severe acidosis. The ketoacidosis persisted despite high doses of glucose and insulin infusions. Due to nonresolving acidosis, her hospital course was complicated by spontaneous intrauterine fetal demise. Euglycemia and severe acidosis continued to persist until delivery of fetus and placenta occurred. It was observed that the insulin sensitivity dramatically increased after delivery of fetus and placenta leading to rapid correction of ketoacidosis. This case highlights that severe ketonemia can occur despite the absence of severely elevated glucose levels. We discuss the mechanism that leads to this pathophysiologic state and summarize previously published case reports about euglycemic DKA in pregnancy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine