Ethnic Variations in the Expression of Depression

Anthony J. Marsella, David Kinzie, Paul Gordon

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    98 Scopus citations


    Samples of Americans of Japanese, Chinese, and European ancestry evidencing clinical levels of depression were administered a depression symptom checklist, and the results were submitted to a factor analysis. Groups differed with respect to the functional dimensions expressed by the patterns. In general, existential symptoms dominated the patterns of the Japanese and Caucasians, while somatic symptoms were more characteristic of the Chinese. In addition, the Japanese evidenced an interpersonal symptom pattern, and both oriental groups manifested a cognitive symptom pattern. A theory was proposed which suggested that symptoms are related to extensions of the self-conditioned via socialization experiences. The role of individual differences, stress, and cultural definitions of disorder in determining the expression of depression was also discussed.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)435-458
    Number of pages24
    JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
    Issue number4
    StatePublished - Dec 1973

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Social Psychology
    • Cultural Studies
    • Anthropology

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