Ethnic variation in the prevalence of echogenic intracardiac foci and the association with Down syndrome

Susan Tran, Aaron Caughey, M. E. Norton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether the prevalence of fetal echogenic intracardiac foci (EIF) differs according to maternal ethnicity. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all women undergoing second-trimester diagnostic ultrasound examination and amniocentesis at a prenatal diagnosis referral center from January 1 2000 to July 1 2003. Data were collected on the presence of EIF, gestational age at time of ultrasound scan, karyotype results, maternal age and ethnicity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of EIF, ethnicity and presence of aneuploidy were conducted. Results: Among the 7480 women qualifying for the study, EIF were found in 309 (4.1%). When maternal ethnicity was subdivided into Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American, Native American, Asian Indian, and Middle Eastern, the highest rates of EIF were found in fetuses of African-American (6.7%), Asian-American (6.9%), and Middle Eastern (8.1%) mothers compared to a rate of 3.3% in Caucasians (T <0.001). In all ethnic groups except Hispanics, EIF was associated with an increased risk for Down syndrome (odds ratio range from 1.8 to 15.7). Conclusions: African-American, Asian-American, and Middle Eastern patients are more likely than patients of other ethnicities to have a fetus with an EIF. Even controlling for ethnicity, fetuses with an EIF still have an increased risk for Down syndrome. As more data accumulate, the prevalence of EIF and its association with Down syndrome among different ethnic groups can be incorporated into patient counseling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-161
Number of pages4
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Asian Americans
Down Syndrome
African Americans
Fetus
North American Indians
Mothers
Hispanic Americans
Ethnic Groups
Amniocentesis
fetuses
Maternal Age
Second Pregnancy Trimester
Aneuploidy
Prenatal Diagnosis
Karyotype
Gestational Age
Counseling
Ultrasonography
Cohort Studies
Referral and Consultation

Keywords

  • Down syndrome
  • Echogenic intracardiac focus
  • Ethnicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

Cite this

@article{90124865a0374ddcb2a522033f5929ee,
title = "Ethnic variation in the prevalence of echogenic intracardiac foci and the association with Down syndrome",
abstract = "Objective: To determine whether the prevalence of fetal echogenic intracardiac foci (EIF) differs according to maternal ethnicity. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all women undergoing second-trimester diagnostic ultrasound examination and amniocentesis at a prenatal diagnosis referral center from January 1 2000 to July 1 2003. Data were collected on the presence of EIF, gestational age at time of ultrasound scan, karyotype results, maternal age and ethnicity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of EIF, ethnicity and presence of aneuploidy were conducted. Results: Among the 7480 women qualifying for the study, EIF were found in 309 (4.1{\%}). When maternal ethnicity was subdivided into Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American, Native American, Asian Indian, and Middle Eastern, the highest rates of EIF were found in fetuses of African-American (6.7{\%}), Asian-American (6.9{\%}), and Middle Eastern (8.1{\%}) mothers compared to a rate of 3.3{\%} in Caucasians (T <0.001). In all ethnic groups except Hispanics, EIF was associated with an increased risk for Down syndrome (odds ratio range from 1.8 to 15.7). Conclusions: African-American, Asian-American, and Middle Eastern patients are more likely than patients of other ethnicities to have a fetus with an EIF. Even controlling for ethnicity, fetuses with an EIF still have an increased risk for Down syndrome. As more data accumulate, the prevalence of EIF and its association with Down syndrome among different ethnic groups can be incorporated into patient counseling.",
keywords = "Down syndrome, Echogenic intracardiac focus, Ethnicity",
author = "Susan Tran and Aaron Caughey and Norton, {M. E.}",
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AU - Caughey, Aaron

AU - Norton, M. E.

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N2 - Objective: To determine whether the prevalence of fetal echogenic intracardiac foci (EIF) differs according to maternal ethnicity. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all women undergoing second-trimester diagnostic ultrasound examination and amniocentesis at a prenatal diagnosis referral center from January 1 2000 to July 1 2003. Data were collected on the presence of EIF, gestational age at time of ultrasound scan, karyotype results, maternal age and ethnicity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of EIF, ethnicity and presence of aneuploidy were conducted. Results: Among the 7480 women qualifying for the study, EIF were found in 309 (4.1%). When maternal ethnicity was subdivided into Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American, Native American, Asian Indian, and Middle Eastern, the highest rates of EIF were found in fetuses of African-American (6.7%), Asian-American (6.9%), and Middle Eastern (8.1%) mothers compared to a rate of 3.3% in Caucasians (T <0.001). In all ethnic groups except Hispanics, EIF was associated with an increased risk for Down syndrome (odds ratio range from 1.8 to 15.7). Conclusions: African-American, Asian-American, and Middle Eastern patients are more likely than patients of other ethnicities to have a fetus with an EIF. Even controlling for ethnicity, fetuses with an EIF still have an increased risk for Down syndrome. As more data accumulate, the prevalence of EIF and its association with Down syndrome among different ethnic groups can be incorporated into patient counseling.

AB - Objective: To determine whether the prevalence of fetal echogenic intracardiac foci (EIF) differs according to maternal ethnicity. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all women undergoing second-trimester diagnostic ultrasound examination and amniocentesis at a prenatal diagnosis referral center from January 1 2000 to July 1 2003. Data were collected on the presence of EIF, gestational age at time of ultrasound scan, karyotype results, maternal age and ethnicity. Univariate and multivariate analyses of EIF, ethnicity and presence of aneuploidy were conducted. Results: Among the 7480 women qualifying for the study, EIF were found in 309 (4.1%). When maternal ethnicity was subdivided into Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, Asian-American, Native American, Asian Indian, and Middle Eastern, the highest rates of EIF were found in fetuses of African-American (6.7%), Asian-American (6.9%), and Middle Eastern (8.1%) mothers compared to a rate of 3.3% in Caucasians (T <0.001). In all ethnic groups except Hispanics, EIF was associated with an increased risk for Down syndrome (odds ratio range from 1.8 to 15.7). Conclusions: African-American, Asian-American, and Middle Eastern patients are more likely than patients of other ethnicities to have a fetus with an EIF. Even controlling for ethnicity, fetuses with an EIF still have an increased risk for Down syndrome. As more data accumulate, the prevalence of EIF and its association with Down syndrome among different ethnic groups can be incorporated into patient counseling.

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