Background During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), there is a high incidence of capnograms distorted by chest compression artifact. This phenomenon adversely affects the reliability of automated ventilation detection based on the analysis of the capnography waveform. This study explored the feasibility of several filtering techniques for suppressing the artifact to improve the accuracy of ventilation detection. Materials and methods We gathered a database of 232 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest defibrillator recordings containing concurrent capnograms, compression depth and transthoracic impedance signals. Capnograms were classified as non-distorted or distorted by chest compression artifact. All chest compression and ventilation instances were also annotated. Three filtering techniques were explored: a fixed-coefficient (FC) filter, an open-loop (OL) adaptive filter, and a closed-loop (CL) adaptive filter. The improvement in ventilation detection was assessed by comparing the performance of a capnogram-based ventilation detection algorithm with original and filtered capnograms. Results Sensitivity and positive predictive value of the ventilation algorithm improved from 91.9%/ 89.5% to 97.7%/96.5% (FC filter), 97.6%/96.7% (OL), and 97.0%/97.1% (CL) for the distorted capnograms (42% of the whole set). The highest improvement was obtained for the artifact named type III, for which performance improved from 77.8%/74.5% to values above 95.5%/94.5%. In addition, errors in the measurement of ventilation rate decreased and accuracy in the detection of over-ventilation increased with filtered capnograms. Conclusions Capnogram-based ventilation detection during CPR was enhanced after suppressing the artifact caused by chest compressions. All filtering approaches performed similarly, so the simplicity of fixed-coefficient filters would take advantage for a practical implementation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)