Emfit bed sensor activity shows strong agreement with wrist actigraphy for the assessment of sleep in the home setting

Juan Piantino, Madison Luther, Christina Reynolds, Miranda Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Wrist-worn actigraphy via research-grade devices, a well-established approach to the assessment of rest-activity, is limited by poor compliance, battery life, and lack of direct evidence for time spent physically in the bed. A non-invasive bed sensor (Emfit) may provide advantages over actigraphy for long-term sleep assessment in the home. This study compared sleep-wake measurements between this sensor and a validated actigraph. Patients and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects (6 to 54 years) underwent simultaneous monitoring with both devices for 14 days and filled out a daily sleep diary. Parameters included bed entry time, sleep start, sleep end, bed exit time, rest interval duration, and wake after sleep onset (WASO). The agreement between the two devices was measured using Bland–Altman plots and inter-class correlation coefficients (ICC). In addition, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were obtained from epoch-by-epoch comparisons of Emfit and actigraphy. Results: Fifteen percent of the subjects reported that wearing the actigraph was a burden. None reported that using the bed sensor was a burden. The minimal detectable change between Emfit and actigraphy was 11 minutes for bed entry time, 14 minutes for sleep start, 14 minutes for sleep end, 10 minutes for bed exit time, 20 minutes for rest interval duration, and 110 minutes for WASO. Inter-class correlation coefficients revealed an excel-lent agreement for all sleep parameters (ICC=0.99, 95% CI 98–99) except for WASO (ICC=0.46, 95% CI 0.33–0.56). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.62, 0.93, and 0.88, respectively. Kappa correlation analysis revealed a moderate correlation between the two devices (κ=0.55, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Emfit is an acceptable alternative to actigraphy for the estimation of bed entry time, sleep start, sleep end, bed exit time, and rest interval duration. However, WASO estimates are poorly correlated between the two devices. Emfit may offer methodological advantages in situations where actigraphy is challenging to implement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1157-1166
Number of pages10
JournalNature and Science of Sleep
Volume13
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Actiwatch 2
  • Ambulatory
  • Emfit
  • Sleep-wake monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Emfit bed sensor activity shows strong agreement with wrist actigraphy for the assessment of sleep in the home setting'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this