Purpose: To elucidate the effect of flow control (ie, balloon occlusion) and the composition of various mixtures of n-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil, with and without the addition of ethanol, for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: A simulation circuit device that featured an artificial nidus was filled with heparinized swine blood obtained during exsanguination from another Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved protocol and was constructed to generate pulsatile flow. Mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil (NL) at a 1:1 ratio (NL 1:1); NL and ethanol (NLE) at a 1:1:3 ratio (NLE 1:1:3) with or without flow control; and NL at 1:3, 1:5, and 1:10 ratios without flow control were injected six times each for a total of 42 trials. Embolization was classified as complete filling, proximal occlusion, pass through, or distal overpenetration after occlusion balloon deflation, and the trial results were compared. The results of the embolization test were evaluated by using the Fisher exact probability test to compare optimal and suboptimal embolization groups. Results: NLE 1:1:3 with flow control completely filled the nidus in all six trials. NL 1:1 delivered with flow control achieved complete nidus filling in three of six injections, as did the NL 1:5 ratio trial without flow control. Complete embolization with NLE 1:1:3 with flow control was more feasible to achieve complete nidus filling than was NL 1:1 with flow control or NL 1:5 without flow control, although there was no statically significant difference (all, P = .09). None of the other mixtures produced complete embolization. Conclusion: NLE 1:1:3 showed consistent and reproducible complete embolization with flow control and was stable after balloon deflation, making it an acceptable material for embolization in an in vitro arteriovenous malformation model. Further study should be performed before the NLE 1:1:3 mixture is used in routine clinical practice.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging