Background Hemorrhage is the most common cause of preventable death in the pre-hospital phase in trauma, with a critical capability gap optimizing pre-hospital resuscitation in austere environments. One promising avenue is the concept of a multi-functional resuscitation fluid (MRF) that contains a blood product backbone with agents that promote clotting and enhance oxygen delivery. Oxygen therapeutics, such as hemoglobin based oxygen carriers(HBOCs) and perfluorocarbons(PFCs), may be a critical MRF component. Our purpose was to assess the efficacy of resuscitation with a PFC, dodecafluoropentane(DDFPe), compared to fresh whole blood(FWB). Methods and findings Forty-five swine(78±5kg) underwent splenectomy and controlled hemorrhage via femoral arterial catheter until shock physiology(lactate = 7.0) was achieved prior to randomization into the following groups: 1) Control-no intervention, 2)Hextend-500mL, 3)FFP-500mL, 4) FFP+DDFPe-500mL, 5)FWB-500mL. Animals were observed for an additional 180 minutes following randomization. Results Baseline physiologic values did not statistically differ. At T = 60min, FWB had significantly decreased lactate(p = 0.001) and DDFPe was not statistically different from control. There was no statistical significance in tissue oxygenation(StO2) between groups at T = 60min. Survival was highest in the FWB and Hextend groups(30% at 180min). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed decreased survival of DDFPe+FFP in comparison to FWB(p<0.05) and was not significantly different from control or FFP. Four animals who received DDFPe died within 10 minutes of administration. This study was limited by a group receiving DDFPe alone, however this would not be feasible in this lethal swine model as DDFPe given its small volume. Conclusion DDFPe administration with FFP does not improve survival or enhance tissue oxygenation. However, given similar survival rates of Hextend and FWB, there is evidence that an ideal MRF should contain an element of volume expansion to enhance oxygen delivery.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)