Effects of social status and moderate alcohol consumption on mammary gland and endometrium of surgically postmenopausal monkeys

Carol A. Shively, Thomas C. Register, Kathleen (Kathy) Grant, Jami L. Johnson, J. Mark Cline

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the effects of social subordination stress and chronic moderate alcohol consumption on indices of breast and endometrial cancer risk. Design: Forty-six adult, ovariectomized, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were trained to voluntarily drink a placebo or a two-drink/day equivalent of ethanol (0.5 g/kg), 5 days a week for 26 months, the latter resulting in average blood alcohol levels of 42 mg/100 mL. Indices of cell proliferation and sex steroid receptor abundance were measured. Results: Compared with dominants, socially subordinate females had increased cell proliferation and proportions of glandular (P <0.02) and epithelial tissue (P = 0.009) and less stroma (P <0.02) in endometrium, and increased tissue thickness in breast (P <0.05). There was no evidence of increased risk of breast or endometrial cancer with chronic moderate alcohol consumption, as indicated by markers of cell proliferation and sex steroid receptor abundance. Chronic moderate alcohol consumption did not effect circulating sex steroid concentrations (all P > 0.10). The adipocyte hormones leptin and adiponectin were correlated with indices of cell proliferation and sex steroid receptor abundance. Conclusions: These observations suggest that social status was more important than chronic moderate alcohol consumption in endometrial and breast biology of surgically postmenopausal females. Endogenous sex steroid metabolism was not significantly affected by chronic moderate alcohol exposure consistent with the lack of estrogen-like effects on breast and endometrium. Social subordination stress was associated with initial cellular changes that may increase endometrial cancer risk. Ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys may be a useful model for the study of effects of social factors and obesity on breast and endometrial cancer risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-399
Number of pages11
JournalMenopause
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Macaca fascicularis
Human Mammary Glands
Endometrial Neoplasms
Endometrium
Alcohol Drinking
Haplorhini
Steroid Receptors
Cell Proliferation
Breast
Breast Neoplasms
Adiponectin
Leptin
Adipocytes
Estrogens
Ethanol
Obesity
Steroids
Placebos
Alcohols
Hormones

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Estrogen
  • Obesity
  • Social status
  • Social stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Effects of social status and moderate alcohol consumption on mammary gland and endometrium of surgically postmenopausal monkeys. / Shively, Carol A.; Register, Thomas C.; Grant, Kathleen (Kathy); Johnson, Jami L.; Cline, J. Mark.

In: Menopause, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2004, p. 389-399.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shively, Carol A. ; Register, Thomas C. ; Grant, Kathleen (Kathy) ; Johnson, Jami L. ; Cline, J. Mark. / Effects of social status and moderate alcohol consumption on mammary gland and endometrium of surgically postmenopausal monkeys. In: Menopause. 2004 ; Vol. 11, No. 4. pp. 389-399.
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