In order to evaluate the effects of hepatic artery embolization (HAE) with Lipiodol (Lp) and gelatin sponge particles (GSP) on swine liver tissue, we embolized the hepatic arteries of 3 pigs with GSP, 9 with Lp, and 9 with Lp+GSP. None of the pigs embolized with GSP died spontaneously during the 4-week experimental period. One pig embolized with 1 ml/kg Lp and three pigs with 2 ml/kg Lp died within 2 h. Two pigs embolized with 0.5 ml/kg Lp+GSP died the following day. The portal vein pressure (PVP) and wedge hepatic vein pressure (WHVP) values before HAE, immediately after, 1 h after, and 4 weeks after HAE showed no remarkable change in the GSP group. Remarkable and temporary elevation was observed in the more than 0.2 ml/kg Lp group. Remarkable and continuous elevation was observed in the 0.2 ml/kg Lp+GSP and 0.5 ml/kg Lp+GSP groups. Gross and histological studies demonstrated no liver damage in the GSP and Lp group. Liver infarction, circular coagulation necrosis with pseudocapsule, and liver atrophy were found in the Lp+GSP group 4 weeks after HAE. The incidence of infarction, circular coagulation necrosis, and liver atrophy in the livers embolized with 0.2 ml/kg Lp+GSP and 0.5 ml/kg Lp+GSP were 67%, 100%, and 75%, respectively. In conclusion, when the hepatic artery is embolized with Lp+GSP, the volume of Lp should be limited to less than 0.1 ml/kg.
- Gelatin sponge particles
- Hepatic artery embolization
- Swine liver
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine