Effects of Different Mixing Agents on the Stability of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate (STS) Foam: An Experimental Study

Kazuki Hashimoto, Barry Uchida, Masahiro Horikawa, Hidefumi Mimura, Khashayar Farsad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: To evaluate the effect of air, CO2 and contrast medium-air on the dwell time (DT) stability of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) foam. Materials and Methods: Three types of foam sclerosants (air-foam, CO2-foam, contrast-air-foam) were injected eight times into an inclined straight plastic tube (internal diameters 4 mm and 10 mm) filled with a blood substitute. Injections were captured by CCD camera, and images were transferred for digital analysis and calculation of DT. Results: Contrast-air-foam and air-foam in a 4-mm tube showed 5.6-/3.3-fold greater DT compared to CO2-foam, respectively (P = 0.001). Contrast-air-foam in a 10-mm tube showed 2.1-fold greater DT compared to CO2-foam (P = 0.0167). Conclusion: A mixture of air and iodinated contrast improves the stability of STS foam compared to mixtures using only air or CO2. Further, animal and clinical studies are needed to validate this in vitro result.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • Fibro-vein
  • Foam sclerotherapy
  • Lower extremity varix
  • Polidocanol
  • Sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS)
  • Sotradecol
  • Venous malformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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