Effects of Age and Estradiol on Gene Expression in the Rhesus Macaque Hypothalamus

Dominique H. Eghlidi, Henryk Urbanski

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    10 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: The hypothalamus plays a key role in mediating the effects of estrogen on many physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism, and thermoregulation. We have previously observed marked estrogen-dependent gene expression changes within the hypothalamus of rhesus macaques during aging, especially in the KNDy neurons of the arcuate-median eminence (ARC-ME) that produce kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms involved in mediating the feedback from estrogen onto these neurons. Methods: We used quantitative real-time PCR to profile age- and estrogen-dependent gene expression changes in the rhesus macaque hypothalamus. Our focus was on genes that encode steroid receptors (ESR1, ESR2, PGR, and AR) and on enzymes that contribute to the local synthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2; STS, HSD3B1/2, HSD17B5, and CYP19A). In addition, we used RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays to profile a larger set of genes that are integral to hypothalamic function. Results: KISS1, KISS1R, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased in surgically menopausal (ovariectomized) old females relative to age-matched ovariectomized animals that received E2 hormone therapy. In contrast, PGR, HSD17B, GNRH2, SLC6A3, KISS1, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased after E2 supplementation. Conclusion: The rhesus macaque ARC-ME expresses many genes that are responsive to changes in circulating estrogen levels, even during old age, and these may contribute to causing the normal and pathophysiological changes that occur during menopause.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)236-245
    Number of pages10
    JournalNeuroendocrinology
    Volume101
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jun 23 2015

    Fingerprint

    Macaca mulatta
    Hypothalamus
    Estradiol
    Estrogens
    Gene Expression
    Median Eminence
    Neurokinin B
    Kisspeptins
    Genes
    Neurons
    Dynorphins
    Messenger RNA
    Body Temperature Regulation
    Steroid Receptors
    Menopause
    Reproduction
    Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Hormones
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Enzymes

    Keywords

    • 17β-estradiol
    • Aging
    • Androgen receptor
    • Estrogen receptor-α
    • Estrogen receptor-β
    • Hypothalamus
    • Menopause
    • Progestin receptor

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Endocrinology
    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
    • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
    • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

    Cite this

    Effects of Age and Estradiol on Gene Expression in the Rhesus Macaque Hypothalamus. / Eghlidi, Dominique H.; Urbanski, Henryk.

    In: Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 101, No. 3, 23.06.2015, p. 236-245.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    abstract = "Background: The hypothalamus plays a key role in mediating the effects of estrogen on many physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism, and thermoregulation. We have previously observed marked estrogen-dependent gene expression changes within the hypothalamus of rhesus macaques during aging, especially in the KNDy neurons of the arcuate-median eminence (ARC-ME) that produce kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms involved in mediating the feedback from estrogen onto these neurons. Methods: We used quantitative real-time PCR to profile age- and estrogen-dependent gene expression changes in the rhesus macaque hypothalamus. Our focus was on genes that encode steroid receptors (ESR1, ESR2, PGR, and AR) and on enzymes that contribute to the local synthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2; STS, HSD3B1/2, HSD17B5, and CYP19A). In addition, we used RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays to profile a larger set of genes that are integral to hypothalamic function. Results: KISS1, KISS1R, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased in surgically menopausal (ovariectomized) old females relative to age-matched ovariectomized animals that received E2 hormone therapy. In contrast, PGR, HSD17B, GNRH2, SLC6A3, KISS1, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased after E2 supplementation. Conclusion: The rhesus macaque ARC-ME expresses many genes that are responsive to changes in circulating estrogen levels, even during old age, and these may contribute to causing the normal and pathophysiological changes that occur during menopause.",
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    N2 - Background: The hypothalamus plays a key role in mediating the effects of estrogen on many physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism, and thermoregulation. We have previously observed marked estrogen-dependent gene expression changes within the hypothalamus of rhesus macaques during aging, especially in the KNDy neurons of the arcuate-median eminence (ARC-ME) that produce kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms involved in mediating the feedback from estrogen onto these neurons. Methods: We used quantitative real-time PCR to profile age- and estrogen-dependent gene expression changes in the rhesus macaque hypothalamus. Our focus was on genes that encode steroid receptors (ESR1, ESR2, PGR, and AR) and on enzymes that contribute to the local synthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2; STS, HSD3B1/2, HSD17B5, and CYP19A). In addition, we used RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays to profile a larger set of genes that are integral to hypothalamic function. Results: KISS1, KISS1R, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased in surgically menopausal (ovariectomized) old females relative to age-matched ovariectomized animals that received E2 hormone therapy. In contrast, PGR, HSD17B, GNRH2, SLC6A3, KISS1, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased after E2 supplementation. Conclusion: The rhesus macaque ARC-ME expresses many genes that are responsive to changes in circulating estrogen levels, even during old age, and these may contribute to causing the normal and pathophysiological changes that occur during menopause.

    AB - Background: The hypothalamus plays a key role in mediating the effects of estrogen on many physiological functions, including reproduction, metabolism, and thermoregulation. We have previously observed marked estrogen-dependent gene expression changes within the hypothalamus of rhesus macaques during aging, especially in the KNDy neurons of the arcuate-median eminence (ARC-ME) that produce kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin A. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms involved in mediating the feedback from estrogen onto these neurons. Methods: We used quantitative real-time PCR to profile age- and estrogen-dependent gene expression changes in the rhesus macaque hypothalamus. Our focus was on genes that encode steroid receptors (ESR1, ESR2, PGR, and AR) and on enzymes that contribute to the local synthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2; STS, HSD3B1/2, HSD17B5, and CYP19A). In addition, we used RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays to profile a larger set of genes that are integral to hypothalamic function. Results: KISS1, KISS1R, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased in surgically menopausal (ovariectomized) old females relative to age-matched ovariectomized animals that received E2 hormone therapy. In contrast, PGR, HSD17B, GNRH2, SLC6A3, KISS1, TAC3, and NPY2R mRNA levels increased after E2 supplementation. Conclusion: The rhesus macaque ARC-ME expresses many genes that are responsive to changes in circulating estrogen levels, even during old age, and these may contribute to causing the normal and pathophysiological changes that occur during menopause.

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    KW - Progestin receptor

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