The influence of simulation on self-efficacy for novice nurses has been reported inconsistently in the literature. Effect sizes across studies were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses. Simulation improved self-efficacy in one-group, pretest-posttest studies (Hedge's g = 1.21, 95% CI [0.63, 1.78]; p < 0.001). Simulation also was favored over control teaching interventions in improving self-efficacy in studies with experimental designs (Hedge's g = 0.27, 95% CI [0.1, 0.44]; p = 0.002). In nonexperimen-tal designs, consistent conclusions about the influence of simulation were tempered by significant between-study differences in effects. Simulation is effective at increasing self-efficacy among novice nurses, compared with traditional control groups.
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