Effect of thiourethane filler surface functionalization on stress, conversion and mechanical properties of restorative dental composites

André L. Faria-e-Silva, Andressa dos Santos, Angela Tang, Emerson M. Girotto, Carmem Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a thiourethane(TU)-modified silane agent in improving properties in filled composites. Methods: The TU-silane agent was synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP), at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol, leaving pendant thiol and alkoxy silane groups. Barium glass fillers (1 μm average particle size) were functionalized with 5 wt% TU-silane in an acidic ethanol solution. Commercially available 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MA-silane) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (SH-silane), as well as no silane treatment (NO-silane), were used as controls. Composites were made with BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2), camphorquinone/ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (0.2/0.8 wt%) and di-tert-butyl hydroxytoluene (0.3 wt%) and 70 wt% silanated inorganic fillers. Polymerization stress (PS) was measured using a cantilever beam apparatus (Bioman). Methacrylate conversion (DC) and rate of polymerization (RP) during photoactivation (800 mW/cm2) were followed in real-time with near-IR. Flexural strength/modulus (FS/FM) were evaluated in three-point bending with 2 × 2 × 25 mm. Statistical analysis: 2-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results: DC, Rpmax and E were similar for all groups tested. FS was similar for the TU- and MA-silane, which were statistically higher than the untreated and SH-silane groups. Stress reductions in relation to the MA-silane were observed for all groups, but statistically more markedly for the TU-silane material. This is likely due to stress relaxation and/or toughening provided at the filler interface by the oligomeric TU structure. Significance: TU-silane oligomers favorably modified conventional dimethacrylate networks with minimal disruption to existing curing chemistry, in filled composites. For the same conversion values, stress reductions of up to 50% were observed, without compromise to mechanical properties or handling characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDental Materials
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Dental composites
Silanes
Mechanical Stress
Fillers
Tooth
Mechanical properties
Isocyanates
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Polymerization
Composite materials
Methacrylates
Toughening
Cantilever beams
Stress relaxation
Barium
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Benzene
Particle Size
Oligomers
Bending strength

Keywords

  • Polymerization
  • Pre-polymerized additives
  • Resin composite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Effect of thiourethane filler surface functionalization on stress, conversion and mechanical properties of restorative dental composites. / Faria-e-Silva, André L.; dos Santos, Andressa; Tang, Angela; Girotto, Emerson M.; Pfeifer, Carmem.

In: Dental Materials, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Effect of thiourethane filler surface functionalization on stress, conversion and mechanical properties of restorative dental composites",
abstract = "Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a thiourethane(TU)-modified silane agent in improving properties in filled composites. Methods: The TU-silane agent was synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP), at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol, leaving pendant thiol and alkoxy silane groups. Barium glass fillers (1 μm average particle size) were functionalized with 5 wt{\%} TU-silane in an acidic ethanol solution. Commercially available 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MA-silane) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (SH-silane), as well as no silane treatment (NO-silane), were used as controls. Composites were made with BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2), camphorquinone/ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (0.2/0.8 wt{\%}) and di-tert-butyl hydroxytoluene (0.3 wt{\%}) and 70 wt{\%} silanated inorganic fillers. Polymerization stress (PS) was measured using a cantilever beam apparatus (Bioman). Methacrylate conversion (DC) and rate of polymerization (RP) during photoactivation (800 mW/cm2) were followed in real-time with near-IR. Flexural strength/modulus (FS/FM) were evaluated in three-point bending with 2 × 2 × 25 mm. Statistical analysis: 2-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 5{\%}). Results: DC, Rpmax and E were similar for all groups tested. FS was similar for the TU- and MA-silane, which were statistically higher than the untreated and SH-silane groups. Stress reductions in relation to the MA-silane were observed for all groups, but statistically more markedly for the TU-silane material. This is likely due to stress relaxation and/or toughening provided at the filler interface by the oligomeric TU structure. Significance: TU-silane oligomers favorably modified conventional dimethacrylate networks with minimal disruption to existing curing chemistry, in filled composites. For the same conversion values, stress reductions of up to 50{\%} were observed, without compromise to mechanical properties or handling characteristics.",
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AU - Faria-e-Silva, André L.

AU - dos Santos, Andressa

AU - Tang, Angela

AU - Girotto, Emerson M.

AU - Pfeifer, Carmem

PY - 2018/1/1

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N2 - Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a thiourethane(TU)-modified silane agent in improving properties in filled composites. Methods: The TU-silane agent was synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP), at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol, leaving pendant thiol and alkoxy silane groups. Barium glass fillers (1 μm average particle size) were functionalized with 5 wt% TU-silane in an acidic ethanol solution. Commercially available 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MA-silane) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (SH-silane), as well as no silane treatment (NO-silane), were used as controls. Composites were made with BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2), camphorquinone/ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (0.2/0.8 wt%) and di-tert-butyl hydroxytoluene (0.3 wt%) and 70 wt% silanated inorganic fillers. Polymerization stress (PS) was measured using a cantilever beam apparatus (Bioman). Methacrylate conversion (DC) and rate of polymerization (RP) during photoactivation (800 mW/cm2) were followed in real-time with near-IR. Flexural strength/modulus (FS/FM) were evaluated in three-point bending with 2 × 2 × 25 mm. Statistical analysis: 2-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results: DC, Rpmax and E were similar for all groups tested. FS was similar for the TU- and MA-silane, which were statistically higher than the untreated and SH-silane groups. Stress reductions in relation to the MA-silane were observed for all groups, but statistically more markedly for the TU-silane material. This is likely due to stress relaxation and/or toughening provided at the filler interface by the oligomeric TU structure. Significance: TU-silane oligomers favorably modified conventional dimethacrylate networks with minimal disruption to existing curing chemistry, in filled composites. For the same conversion values, stress reductions of up to 50% were observed, without compromise to mechanical properties or handling characteristics.

AB - Objectives: This study evaluated the efficacy of a thiourethane(TU)-modified silane agent in improving properties in filled composites. Methods: The TU-silane agent was synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP), at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol, leaving pendant thiol and alkoxy silane groups. Barium glass fillers (1 μm average particle size) were functionalized with 5 wt% TU-silane in an acidic ethanol solution. Commercially available 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MA-silane) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (SH-silane), as well as no silane treatment (NO-silane), were used as controls. Composites were made with BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2), camphorquinone/ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (0.2/0.8 wt%) and di-tert-butyl hydroxytoluene (0.3 wt%) and 70 wt% silanated inorganic fillers. Polymerization stress (PS) was measured using a cantilever beam apparatus (Bioman). Methacrylate conversion (DC) and rate of polymerization (RP) during photoactivation (800 mW/cm2) were followed in real-time with near-IR. Flexural strength/modulus (FS/FM) were evaluated in three-point bending with 2 × 2 × 25 mm. Statistical analysis: 2-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results: DC, Rpmax and E were similar for all groups tested. FS was similar for the TU- and MA-silane, which were statistically higher than the untreated and SH-silane groups. Stress reductions in relation to the MA-silane were observed for all groups, but statistically more markedly for the TU-silane material. This is likely due to stress relaxation and/or toughening provided at the filler interface by the oligomeric TU structure. Significance: TU-silane oligomers favorably modified conventional dimethacrylate networks with minimal disruption to existing curing chemistry, in filled composites. For the same conversion values, stress reductions of up to 50% were observed, without compromise to mechanical properties or handling characteristics.

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