Effect of the combination of a crosslinking agent and a thiourethane additive on the properties of acrylic denture bases processed with microwave energy

Rafael L.X. Consani, Andreia B. de Paula, Ana Paula P. Fugolin, Carmem Pfeifer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Thiourethane (TU) additives and difunctional, polymerizable crosslinking agents have been demonstrated to increase toughness in methacrylate-based materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential reinforcement of acrylic denture bases by combining thiourethane additives and 1,6 hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA) as an additional crosslinking agent. One commercial acrylic resin (Nature-Cryl MC; GC America) was tested by adding 0 (control) or 10 wt% TU, each of them combined with 0 (control), 10, 20 and 30 wt% HDDMA, for a total of 8 experimental groups. Materials were processed using microwave energy (500 W for 3 min) using microwave-safe molds and flasks. Flexural strength, modulus and toughness were obtained in 3-point bending (ISO 4049) using bars measuring 2 × 2x25 mm (n = 6). Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to determine glass transition temperature (Tg), breadth of tan delta (as a measure of polymer heterogeneity) and crosslinking density in 1 × 3x15 mm bars (n = 6) tested in tension, using a 3 °C/min heating rate (−30 to 180 °C). Viscosity samples were evaluated in a parallel plate reometer. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results showed that on the samples not containing TU, HDDMA up to 20 wt% increased the flexural strength and thoughness (and up to 30 wt% HDDMA increased the modulus). The addition of TU did not affect those properties (except for the increase in elastic modulus), but the combination TU + HDDMA led to decreased properties overall. The addition of HDDMA decreased the viscosity for all materials, and the presence of TU did not affect viscosity. The Tg increased linearly with the concentration of HDDMA, except in the groups containing TU – in general, the addition of TU reduced Tg. The crosslinking density increased with the addition of HDDMA for all materials, regardless of the presence of TU. The addition of TU significantly decreased crosslinking density. The breadth of tan delta was not affected by the addition of HDDMA, but significantly increased with the addition of TU. In conclusion, the chain-breaking effect of TU on polymerizing methacrylates was deleterious in the case of methyl methacrylate, since it forms a linear polymer. The addition of HDDMA up to 20 wt% and not combined with TU significantly improved the tested properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)90-95
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Volume98
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

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Dental prostheses
Crosslinking
Acrylics
Microwaves
Methacrylates
Viscosity
Bending strength
Toughness
Polymers
Acrylic Resins
Molds
Dynamic mechanical analysis
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Heating rate
Reinforcement
Resins
Elastic moduli

Keywords

  • Acrylic resin
  • Crosslinking agent
  • Dynamic mechanical analysis
  • Flexural strength
  • Thiourethane oligomers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Effect of the combination of a crosslinking agent and a thiourethane additive on the properties of acrylic denture bases processed with microwave energy. / Consani, Rafael L.X.; de Paula, Andreia B.; Fugolin, Ana Paula P.; Pfeifer, Carmem.

In: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol. 98, 01.10.2019, p. 90-95.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Thiourethane (TU) additives and difunctional, polymerizable crosslinking agents have been demonstrated to increase toughness in methacrylate-based materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential reinforcement of acrylic denture bases by combining thiourethane additives and 1,6 hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA) as an additional crosslinking agent. One commercial acrylic resin (Nature-Cryl MC; GC America) was tested by adding 0 (control) or 10 wt{\%} TU, each of them combined with 0 (control), 10, 20 and 30 wt{\%} HDDMA, for a total of 8 experimental groups. Materials were processed using microwave energy (500 W for 3 min) using microwave-safe molds and flasks. Flexural strength, modulus and toughness were obtained in 3-point bending (ISO 4049) using bars measuring 2 × 2x25 mm (n = 6). Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to determine glass transition temperature (Tg), breadth of tan delta (as a measure of polymer heterogeneity) and crosslinking density in 1 × 3x15 mm bars (n = 6) tested in tension, using a 3 °C/min heating rate (−30 to 180 °C). Viscosity samples were evaluated in a parallel plate reometer. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Results showed that on the samples not containing TU, HDDMA up to 20 wt{\%} increased the flexural strength and thoughness (and up to 30 wt{\%} HDDMA increased the modulus). The addition of TU did not affect those properties (except for the increase in elastic modulus), but the combination TU + HDDMA led to decreased properties overall. The addition of HDDMA decreased the viscosity for all materials, and the presence of TU did not affect viscosity. The Tg increased linearly with the concentration of HDDMA, except in the groups containing TU – in general, the addition of TU reduced Tg. The crosslinking density increased with the addition of HDDMA for all materials, regardless of the presence of TU. The addition of TU significantly decreased crosslinking density. The breadth of tan delta was not affected by the addition of HDDMA, but significantly increased with the addition of TU. In conclusion, the chain-breaking effect of TU on polymerizing methacrylates was deleterious in the case of methyl methacrylate, since it forms a linear polymer. The addition of HDDMA up to 20 wt{\%} and not combined with TU significantly improved the tested properties.",
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AU - Pfeifer, Carmem

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