Effect of heat on the flow of commercial composites

Juliana Da Costa, Rose McPharlin, Thomas (Tom) Hilton, Jack Ferracane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study compared the flowability of various commercial dental composites to flowable composites in response to warming in a composite warmer. Methods: 18 conventional resin composites and four flowable composites were tested at room temperature (23°C), and the conventional composites were tested after pre-heating in a Calset unit (Addent) to 54°C or 68°C. Flowability was determined by placing uncured composite onto plastic sheets and loading for 180 seconds (4 kg load) while maintained at 36°C (conditioning temperature [n=3]) to simulate placing room temperature composite into a tooth. The composite was light-cured for 40 seconds. The thickness of the specimens were measured. Thickness/volume (T/V) were compared for the composites for the three temperatures, and between flowable and conventional composites at 23°C (one-way ANOVA/Tukey's; P< 0.05). Results: At 23°C, the flowable composites T/V were significantly less than the conventional composites (P< 0.001), ranging from 0.46 mm/cm3 (Perma Flo HV) to 1.43 mm/cm 3 (Point 4 Flow), except for Z100 (1.48 mm/cm3/±0. 32), Z250 (1.79 mm/cm3/±0.09), Gradia (1.53 mm/cm 3/±0.07), and Grandio (1.98 mm/cm3/±0.07). The T/V of the conventional composites were not significantly different at all three temperatures (P> 0.05), except for Esthet-X which showed the greatest T/V decrease at 68°C (3.84 mm/cm3/±0.3) compared to 23°C (6.44 mm/cm3/±0.36) and 4 Seasons which showed the greatest T/V decrease at 54°C (3 mm/cm3/±0.1) compared to 23°C (3.57 mm/cm3/±0.1.4).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)92-96
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican journal of dentistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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