Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

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Abstract

Objectives: Physical exercise is recommended for individuals with type 1 diabetes, yet the effects of exercise on glycemic control are not well established. We evaluated the impact of different modes of exercise on glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes. Methods: In a 3-week randomized crossover trial, 10 adults with type 1 diabetes (4 men and 6 women, aged 33±6 years; duration of diabetes, 18±10 years; glycated hemoglobin level, 7.4%±1%) were assigned to 3 weeks of intervention: aerobic exercise (treadmill at 60% of maximum volume of oxygen utilization), resistance training (8 to 12 repetitions of 5 upper and lower body exercises at 60% to 80% of 1 repetition maximum) or no exercise (control). During each exercise week, participants completed 2 monitored 45 min exercise sessions. For each week of the study, we analyzed participants’ insulin pump data, sensor glucose data and meal intake using a custom smart-phone application. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in range (glucose >3.9 mmol/L and ≤10 mmol/L) for the 24 h after each bout of exercise or rest during the control week. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT:02687893). Results: Aerobic exercise caused a mean glucose reduction during exercise of 3.94±2.67 mmol/L, whereas the reduction during resistance training was 1.33±1.78 mmol/L (p=0.007). The mean percentage time in range for the 24 h after resistance training was significantly greater than that during the control period (70% vs. 56%, p=0.013) but not after aerobic exercise (60%). Conclusions: The results indicate that when various confounders are considered, resistance training could improve glycemic control in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCanadian Journal of Diabetes
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Exercise
Resistance Training
Glucose
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Cross-Over Studies
Meals
Insulin
Oxygen

Keywords

  • energy expenditure
  • exercise
  • glycemic control
  • meal intake
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

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title = "Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes",
abstract = "Objectives: Physical exercise is recommended for individuals with type 1 diabetes, yet the effects of exercise on glycemic control are not well established. We evaluated the impact of different modes of exercise on glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes. Methods: In a 3-week randomized crossover trial, 10 adults with type 1 diabetes (4 men and 6 women, aged 33±6 years; duration of diabetes, 18±10 years; glycated hemoglobin level, 7.4{\%}±1{\%}) were assigned to 3 weeks of intervention: aerobic exercise (treadmill at 60{\%} of maximum volume of oxygen utilization), resistance training (8 to 12 repetitions of 5 upper and lower body exercises at 60{\%} to 80{\%} of 1 repetition maximum) or no exercise (control). During each exercise week, participants completed 2 monitored 45 min exercise sessions. For each week of the study, we analyzed participants’ insulin pump data, sensor glucose data and meal intake using a custom smart-phone application. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in range (glucose >3.9 mmol/L and ≤10 mmol/L) for the 24 h after each bout of exercise or rest during the control week. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT:02687893). Results: Aerobic exercise caused a mean glucose reduction during exercise of 3.94±2.67 mmol/L, whereas the reduction during resistance training was 1.33±1.78 mmol/L (p=0.007). The mean percentage time in range for the 24 h after resistance training was significantly greater than that during the control period (70{\%} vs. 56{\%}, p=0.013) but not after aerobic exercise (60{\%}). Conclusions: The results indicate that when various confounders are considered, resistance training could improve glycemic control in this population.",
keywords = "energy expenditure, exercise, glycemic control, meal intake, type 1 diabetes",
author = "Ravi Reddy and Amanda Wittenberg and Jessica Castle and {El Youssef}, Joseph and Kerri Winters-Stone and Melanie Gillingham and Peter Jacobs",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jcjd.2018.08.193",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Canadian Journal of Diabetes",
issn = "1499-2671",
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T1 - Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

AU - Reddy, Ravi

AU - Wittenberg, Amanda

AU - Castle, Jessica

AU - El Youssef, Joseph

AU - Winters-Stone, Kerri

AU - Gillingham, Melanie

AU - Jacobs, Peter

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Objectives: Physical exercise is recommended for individuals with type 1 diabetes, yet the effects of exercise on glycemic control are not well established. We evaluated the impact of different modes of exercise on glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes. Methods: In a 3-week randomized crossover trial, 10 adults with type 1 diabetes (4 men and 6 women, aged 33±6 years; duration of diabetes, 18±10 years; glycated hemoglobin level, 7.4%±1%) were assigned to 3 weeks of intervention: aerobic exercise (treadmill at 60% of maximum volume of oxygen utilization), resistance training (8 to 12 repetitions of 5 upper and lower body exercises at 60% to 80% of 1 repetition maximum) or no exercise (control). During each exercise week, participants completed 2 monitored 45 min exercise sessions. For each week of the study, we analyzed participants’ insulin pump data, sensor glucose data and meal intake using a custom smart-phone application. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in range (glucose >3.9 mmol/L and ≤10 mmol/L) for the 24 h after each bout of exercise or rest during the control week. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT:02687893). Results: Aerobic exercise caused a mean glucose reduction during exercise of 3.94±2.67 mmol/L, whereas the reduction during resistance training was 1.33±1.78 mmol/L (p=0.007). The mean percentage time in range for the 24 h after resistance training was significantly greater than that during the control period (70% vs. 56%, p=0.013) but not after aerobic exercise (60%). Conclusions: The results indicate that when various confounders are considered, resistance training could improve glycemic control in this population.

AB - Objectives: Physical exercise is recommended for individuals with type 1 diabetes, yet the effects of exercise on glycemic control are not well established. We evaluated the impact of different modes of exercise on glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes. Methods: In a 3-week randomized crossover trial, 10 adults with type 1 diabetes (4 men and 6 women, aged 33±6 years; duration of diabetes, 18±10 years; glycated hemoglobin level, 7.4%±1%) were assigned to 3 weeks of intervention: aerobic exercise (treadmill at 60% of maximum volume of oxygen utilization), resistance training (8 to 12 repetitions of 5 upper and lower body exercises at 60% to 80% of 1 repetition maximum) or no exercise (control). During each exercise week, participants completed 2 monitored 45 min exercise sessions. For each week of the study, we analyzed participants’ insulin pump data, sensor glucose data and meal intake using a custom smart-phone application. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in range (glucose >3.9 mmol/L and ≤10 mmol/L) for the 24 h after each bout of exercise or rest during the control week. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT:02687893). Results: Aerobic exercise caused a mean glucose reduction during exercise of 3.94±2.67 mmol/L, whereas the reduction during resistance training was 1.33±1.78 mmol/L (p=0.007). The mean percentage time in range for the 24 h after resistance training was significantly greater than that during the control period (70% vs. 56%, p=0.013) but not after aerobic exercise (60%). Conclusions: The results indicate that when various confounders are considered, resistance training could improve glycemic control in this population.

KW - energy expenditure

KW - exercise

KW - glycemic control

KW - meal intake

KW - type 1 diabetes

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SN - 1499-2671

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