Purpose: To support clinical pharmacodynamic evaluation of the Smac mimetic TL32711 (birinapant) and other apoptosistargeting drugs, we describe the development, validation, and application of novel immunoassays for 15 cytosolic and membrane- associated proteins indicative of the induction, onset, and commitment to apoptosis in human tumors. Experimental Design: The multiplex immunoassays were constructed on the Luminex platform with apoptosis biomarkers grouped into three panels. Panel 1 contains Bak, Bax, total caspase-3, total lamin-B (intact and 45 kDa fragment), and Smac; panel 2 contains Bad, Bax-Bcl-2 heterodimer, Bcl-xL, Bim, and Mcl1; and panel 3 contains active (cleaved) caspase-3, Bcl-xL-Bak heterodimer, Mcl1-Bak heterodimer, pS99-Bad, and survivin. Antibody specificity was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Results: Two laboratories analytically validated the multiplex immunoassays for application with core-needle biopsy samples processed to control preanalytical variables; the biologic variability for each biomarker was estimated from xenograft measurements. Studies of TL32711 in xenograft models confirmed a dosedependent increase in activated caspase-3 6 hours after dosing and provided assay fit-for-purpose confirmation. Coincident changes in cytosolic lamin-B and subsequent changes in Bcl-xL provided correlative evidence of caspase-3 activation. The validated assay is suitable for use with clinical specimens; 14 of 15 biomarkers were quantifiable in patient core-needle biopsies. Conclusions: The validated multiplex immunoassays developed for this study provided proof of mechanism data for TL32711 and are suitable for quantifying apoptotic biomarkers in clinical trials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research