Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale.

Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Ritu Nehra, Sunil Sharma, Ashima Malik, Deborah Jones, Adarsh M. Kumar, Raymond L. Ownby, Ajay Wanchu, Steve Weiss, Sudesh Prabhakar, Mahendra Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) within the Indian subcontinent continues to spread. Although the primary clade of HIV in India differs from that of most Western countries, recent evidence suggests that the Indian clade (Clade C) also impacts neurocognitive functioning. India also has extremely high illiteracy rates that may confound detection of neurocognitive impairment, since many assessments to detect such impairment are heavily influenced by formal schooling. Among those with HIV/AIDS who have had limited educational opportunities and who are in the early stage of infection, the confounding effects of education on tests for neurocognitive impairment may be particularly salient. We therefore tested influence of HIV serostatus and education on a commonly used tool to screen for cognitive impairment, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), among Indian men and women in the catchment area of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) located in Chandigarh, India. Adjusted analyses showed that from a sample of 295 HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, only education was significantly associated with performance on the IHDS. HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals, who were in the early stages of infection, performed similarly. Further development of this test to account for the effects of education on cut-off scores used to indicate possible dementia are needed, particularly for use in resource-limited settings such as India where low levels of education are widespread.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)264-267
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of NeuroVirology
Volume16
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

AIDS Dementia Complex
HIV
Education
India
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Graduate Medical Education
Infection
Dementia
Biomedical Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neurology

Cite this

Waldrop-Valverde, D., Nehra, R., Sharma, S., Malik, A., Jones, D., Kumar, A. M., ... Kumar, M. (2010). Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale. Journal of NeuroVirology, 16(4), 264-267. https://doi.org/10.3109/13550284.2010.497808

Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale. / Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Nehra, Ritu; Sharma, Sunil; Malik, Ashima; Jones, Deborah; Kumar, Adarsh M.; Ownby, Raymond L.; Wanchu, Ajay; Weiss, Steve; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Kumar, Mahendra.

In: Journal of NeuroVirology, Vol. 16, No. 4, 08.2010, p. 264-267.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Waldrop-Valverde, D, Nehra, R, Sharma, S, Malik, A, Jones, D, Kumar, AM, Ownby, RL, Wanchu, A, Weiss, S, Prabhakar, S & Kumar, M 2010, 'Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale.', Journal of NeuroVirology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 264-267. https://doi.org/10.3109/13550284.2010.497808
Waldrop-Valverde D, Nehra R, Sharma S, Malik A, Jones D, Kumar AM et al. Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale. Journal of NeuroVirology. 2010 Aug;16(4):264-267. https://doi.org/10.3109/13550284.2010.497808
Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna ; Nehra, Ritu ; Sharma, Sunil ; Malik, Ashima ; Jones, Deborah ; Kumar, Adarsh M. ; Ownby, Raymond L. ; Wanchu, Ajay ; Weiss, Steve ; Prabhakar, Sudesh ; Kumar, Mahendra. / Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale. In: Journal of NeuroVirology. 2010 ; Vol. 16, No. 4. pp. 264-267.
@article{e0130b61f55c49e6a6074363f35c1b21,
title = "Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale.",
abstract = "Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) within the Indian subcontinent continues to spread. Although the primary clade of HIV in India differs from that of most Western countries, recent evidence suggests that the Indian clade (Clade C) also impacts neurocognitive functioning. India also has extremely high illiteracy rates that may confound detection of neurocognitive impairment, since many assessments to detect such impairment are heavily influenced by formal schooling. Among those with HIV/AIDS who have had limited educational opportunities and who are in the early stage of infection, the confounding effects of education on tests for neurocognitive impairment may be particularly salient. We therefore tested influence of HIV serostatus and education on a commonly used tool to screen for cognitive impairment, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), among Indian men and women in the catchment area of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) located in Chandigarh, India. Adjusted analyses showed that from a sample of 295 HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, only education was significantly associated with performance on the IHDS. HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals, who were in the early stages of infection, performed similarly. Further development of this test to account for the effects of education on cut-off scores used to indicate possible dementia are needed, particularly for use in resource-limited settings such as India where low levels of education are widespread.",
author = "Drenna Waldrop-Valverde and Ritu Nehra and Sunil Sharma and Ashima Malik and Deborah Jones and Kumar, {Adarsh M.} and Ownby, {Raymond L.} and Ajay Wanchu and Steve Weiss and Sudesh Prabhakar and Mahendra Kumar",
year = "2010",
month = "8",
doi = "10.3109/13550284.2010.497808",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "264--267",
journal = "Journal of NeuroVirology",
issn = "1355-0284",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Education effects on the International HIV Dementia Scale.

AU - Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna

AU - Nehra, Ritu

AU - Sharma, Sunil

AU - Malik, Ashima

AU - Jones, Deborah

AU - Kumar, Adarsh M.

AU - Ownby, Raymond L.

AU - Wanchu, Ajay

AU - Weiss, Steve

AU - Prabhakar, Sudesh

AU - Kumar, Mahendra

PY - 2010/8

Y1 - 2010/8

N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) within the Indian subcontinent continues to spread. Although the primary clade of HIV in India differs from that of most Western countries, recent evidence suggests that the Indian clade (Clade C) also impacts neurocognitive functioning. India also has extremely high illiteracy rates that may confound detection of neurocognitive impairment, since many assessments to detect such impairment are heavily influenced by formal schooling. Among those with HIV/AIDS who have had limited educational opportunities and who are in the early stage of infection, the confounding effects of education on tests for neurocognitive impairment may be particularly salient. We therefore tested influence of HIV serostatus and education on a commonly used tool to screen for cognitive impairment, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), among Indian men and women in the catchment area of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) located in Chandigarh, India. Adjusted analyses showed that from a sample of 295 HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, only education was significantly associated with performance on the IHDS. HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals, who were in the early stages of infection, performed similarly. Further development of this test to account for the effects of education on cut-off scores used to indicate possible dementia are needed, particularly for use in resource-limited settings such as India where low levels of education are widespread.

AB - Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) within the Indian subcontinent continues to spread. Although the primary clade of HIV in India differs from that of most Western countries, recent evidence suggests that the Indian clade (Clade C) also impacts neurocognitive functioning. India also has extremely high illiteracy rates that may confound detection of neurocognitive impairment, since many assessments to detect such impairment are heavily influenced by formal schooling. Among those with HIV/AIDS who have had limited educational opportunities and who are in the early stage of infection, the confounding effects of education on tests for neurocognitive impairment may be particularly salient. We therefore tested influence of HIV serostatus and education on a commonly used tool to screen for cognitive impairment, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), among Indian men and women in the catchment area of the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) located in Chandigarh, India. Adjusted analyses showed that from a sample of 295 HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, only education was significantly associated with performance on the IHDS. HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals, who were in the early stages of infection, performed similarly. Further development of this test to account for the effects of education on cut-off scores used to indicate possible dementia are needed, particularly for use in resource-limited settings such as India where low levels of education are widespread.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78149483100&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78149483100&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3109/13550284.2010.497808

DO - 10.3109/13550284.2010.497808

M3 - Article

C2 - 20578972

AN - SCOPUS:77955125435

VL - 16

SP - 264

EP - 267

JO - Journal of NeuroVirology

JF - Journal of NeuroVirology

SN - 1355-0284

IS - 4

ER -