Congenital coronary arterial fistulas are rare anomalies that have traditionally been managed by surgical ligation. However, in recent years endovascular therapy has been employed with encouraging results. Between 1993 and 1996, we performed transcatheter coil embolization of coronary arterial fistulas to the right atrium or ventricle in four children ranging in age from 4.5 to 9.8 years. Cardiac and coronary arterial anatomy were diagnosed correctly on the preoperative echocardiogram in all patients, including the origin, course, and termination of the fistulas. The fistula was occluded completely in three of the patients, whereas trivial residual flow remained in the fourth. Transesophageal echocardiography was useful for monitoring the embolization procedure. In one of the patients, the fistula reopened while the child was on overnight heparin, although the magnitude of flow was less than that before the embolization. At follow-up ranging from 10 to 43 months, there was no flow through the fistula in any patient. We present our experience with these patients, with a focus on the importance of echocardiographic evaluation before, during, and after transcatheter therapy of coronary arterial fistulas.
- Color-flow Doppler echocardiography
- Coronary artery anomalies
- Endovascular therapy
- Transesophageal echocardiography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine