Background: Factors predicting timing of post-traumatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) remain incompletely understood. Because the balance between hemorrhage and thrombosis is dynamic during a patient's hospital course, early and late VTE may be physiologically discrete processes. This secondary analysis of the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) trial aims to explore whether certain risk factors are associated with early versus late VTE. Methods: The PROPPR trial investigated post-traumatic resuscitation with platelets, plasma, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 ratio compared with a 1:1:2 ratio. Multinomial regression based on a threshold determined by cubic spline analysis tested the association of clinical variables with early or late VTE, a composite of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus, adjusting for predetermined confounders. Results: Of the 87 patients (13%) with VTE, pulmonary embolus was predominant in the first 72 hours. A statistically determined threshold at 12 days corresponded to change in odds of early versus late events. Variables associated with early VTE included plasma transfusion (risk ratio [RR] 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.00, 1.30; P = .05), sepsis (RR 0.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.40, 6.64; P = .01), pelvic or femur fracture (RR 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.00, 6.90; P = .05). Late VTE was associated with dialysis (RR 7.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.59, 34.14; P = .01), older age (RR 1.02; 95% confidence interval 1.00, 1.04; P = .05), and delayed resuscitation approaching ratios of 1:1:1 among patients randomized to 1:1:2 therapy (RR 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.28, 3.83; P = .02). Cyroprecipitate increased risk of early (RR 1.04, 95% confidence interval, 1.00,1.08; P < .03) and late VTE (1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01, 1.09; P = .01). Prolonged lagtime (coeffcient 0.06, 95% confidence interval, 0.02, 0.10; P < .01) and time-to-peak thrombin generation (coeffcient 0.04, 95% confidence interval, 0.02, 0.07; P < .01) were associated with increased risk of early VTE. Conclusion: Early and late VTE may differ in their risk factors. Defining temporal trends in VTE may allow for a more individualized approach to thromboprophylaxis.
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