The elimination of tuberculosis (TB) cannot reasonably be achieved by treatment of individual cases and will require an improved vaccine or immunotherapy. A challenge in developing an improved TB vaccine has been the lack of understanding what is needed to generate sterilizing immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Several epidemiological observations support the hypothesis that humans can eradicate Mtb following exposure. This has been termed early clearance and is defined as elimination of Mtb infection prior to the development of an adaptive immune response, as measured by a tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma release assay. Here, we examine research into the likelihood of and possible mechanisms responsible for early clearance in household contacts of patients with active TB. We explore both innate and adaptive immune responses in the lung. Enhanced understanding of these mechanisms could be harnessed for the development of a preventative vaccine or immunotherapy.
- Household contact studies
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Preventative vaccine
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)