Nuclear receptors adopt dramatically different conformations in the presence or absence of ligand, and such liganded (holo) and unliganded (apo) receptors are specifically recognized by transcriptional coactivators and corepressors, respectively. These two states likely exist in dynamic equilibrium, contrary to the conventional model of static off and on conformations. First, corepressor SMRT [for silencing mediator of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and retinoic acid receptor (RAR)] inhibits the interaction of coactivator steroid receptor coactivator-1 with liganded TR/RAR. Second, SMRT enables receptors to adopt apo-form even in the presence of ligand, as demonstrated with limited proteolyses and decreased binding of radiolabeled retinoid to RAR. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation results indicate that SMRT and steroid receptor coactivator-1 dynamically compete for receptor bindings in vivo in the presence of ligand. These results suggest that corepressor binding can drive receptors to adopt the apo-state, even in the presence of ligand, and inhibit activated liganded (holo) nuclear receptors in vivo.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology