Since January 1985, the date of the first dynamic cardiomyoplasty, until April 1992, 52 patients with end-stage heart disease were operated on in our institution. Mean preoperative New York Heart Association functional class was 3.3 and ventricular ejection fraction 16% ± 3%. Associated procedures in 23 patients comprised ventricular aneurysm resection (10), valve surgery (9), coronary artery bypass (8), and tumor resection (3). Thirty-eight patients had a ventricular reinforcement, 13 a ventricular substitution, and 1 an atrial reinforcement using the left latissimus dorsi muscle. Preassist mortality rate before full latissimus dorsi muscle stimulation was 7 of 13 patients (54%) in the 1985 to 1987 period and 5 of 39 (12%) in the 1988 to 1992 period. The causes of death were heart failure (4), multiorgan failure (4), septicemia (2), ventricular fibrillation (1), and sudden death (1). Multivariate analysis of factors influencing hospital mortality showed that age, cardiac suture technique, associated surgical procedures, biventricular heart failure, and hemodynamic instability plus inotropic drug support were predictors of unfavorable outcome. All patients were followed up for from 2 months to 7 years (mean 21 months). Postassist mortality rate was 8 of 40 (20%). Causes of death included heart failure (5), ventricular fibrillation (1), myocardial infarction (1), and gastric bleeding (1). Preoperative risk factors influencing long-term mortality were permanent New York Heart Association functional class IV, biventricular heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiothoracic ratio greater than 60%, and ejection fraction less than 15%. Actuarial survival at 7 years was 70.4% (preassist mortality excluded). Surviving patients were in a mean New York Heart Association functional class of 1.8 (preoperatively 3.3, p < 0.05). The average ejection fractions (rest/stress) were 25%/28% at 1 year, 26%/30% at 2 years, and 23%/28% at 3 years. Average cardiothoracic ratios were 57% ± 3% at 1 year, 56% ± 2% at 2 years, and 57% ± 2.5% at 3 years. Catheterization obtained in 20 patients showed no significant changes at rest in capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and diastolic left ventricular pressure when compared with preoperative pressures. Average ejection fractions increased from 24% to 30.6%. Maximal oxygen consumption increased from 12.8 ± 3.5 to 18.6 ± 4 ml/min per kilogram. The number of rehospitalization resulting from congestive heart failure was reduced to 0.4 hospitalizations per patient per year (preoperatively 2.4, p < 0.05). In 62% of the patients, pharmacologic therapy was diminished after the operation. Three patients required orthotopic heart transplantation 6 months, 4 years, and 5 years after cardiomyoplasty. All are alive.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine