OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy and feasibility of a dual-hormone (DH) closed-loop system with insulin and a novel liquid stable glucagon formulation compared with an insulin-only closed-loop system and a predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a 76-h, randomized, crossover, outpatient study, 23 participants with type 1 diabetes used three modes of the Oregon Artificial Pancreas system: 1) dual-hormone (DH) closed-loop control, 2) insulin-only single-hormone (SH) closed-loop control, and 3) PLGS system. The primary end point was percentage time in hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL) from the start of in-clinic aerobic exercise (45 min at 60% VO2max) to 4 h after. RESULTS DH reduced hypoglycemia compared with SH during and after exercise (DH 0.0% [interquartile range 0.0–4.2], SH 8.3% [0.0–12.5], P 5 0.025). There was an increased time in hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) during and after exercise for DH versus SH (20.8% DH vs. 6.3% SH, P 5 0.038). Mean glucose during the entire study duration was DH, 159.2; SH, 151.6; and PLGS, 163.6 mg/dL. Across the entire study duration, DH resulted in 7.5% more time in target range (70–180 mg/dL) compared with the PLGS system (71.0% vs. 63.4%, P 5 0.044). For the entire study duration, DH had 28.2% time in hyperglycemia vs. 25.1% for SH (P 5 0.044) and 34.7% for PLGS (P 5 0.140). Four participants experienced nausea related to glucagon, leading three to withdraw from the study. CONCLUSIONS The glucagon formulation demonstrated feasibility in a closed-loop system. The DH system reduced hypoglycemia during and after exercise, with some increase in hyperglycemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing