Does small for gestational age worsen outcomes in gestational diabetics?*

Tania F. Esakoff, Alyson Guillet, Aaron B. Caughey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Objective: Our goal was to determine whether pregnancy outcomes are worse in gestational diabetics with small for gestational age (SGA) than those without. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 114 199 pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in California, 6446 of which were complicated by SGA. SGA was defined as birth weight < 10th percentile. Predictors included the presence or absence of SGA. Outcomes included respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), neonatal demise (NND), intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), hypoglycemia and jaundice. The data were also stratified by gestational age looking at 32 + 0–36 + 6 weeks and 37 + 0–41 + 6 weeks. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: In the term 37 + 0 to 41 + 6 week GDM cohort the risk of RDS increased from 0.4% to 1.3%, the risk of neonatal demise from 0.02% to 0.09%, the risk of IUFD from 0.1% to 0.4%, the risk of hypoglycemia from 0.4% to 1.0% and the risk of jaundice from 18.0% to 23.3% (p < 0.001 for all). Similar relationships were seen in the 32 + 0 to 36 + 6 week group. The findings remained significant in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: The presence of SGA in a patient with gestational diabetes is associated with significantly increased risks of adverse outcomes compared to gestational diabetics without SGA including increased risks of RDS, neonatal demise, IUFD, hypoglycemia and jaundice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)890-893
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 18 2017


  • Gestational diabetes
  • perinatal outcomes
  • small for gestational age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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