Background: Margin-negative (R0) resection is the strongest positive prognostic factor in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). Due to its anatomic location, the caudate lobe is frequently involved in PHC. This review aimed to examine the impact of caudate lobe resection (CLR) in addition to hepatectomy and bile duct resection for patients with PHC. Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were systematically reviewed from inception to October 2021 to identify studies comparing patients undergoing surgical resection with hepatectomy and bile duct resection with or without CLR for treatment of PHC. Outcomes included the proportion of patients achieving R0 resection, overall survival (OS), and perioperative morbidity. Results: Altogether, 949 studies were screened. The review included eight observational studies reporting on 1137 patients. The patients who underwent CLR had a higher likelihood of R0 resection (odds ratio [OR], 5.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.64–12.95) and a better OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.54–0.79) than those who did not. The use of CLR did not increase the risk of perioperative morbidity (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.65–1.63). Conclusions: Given the higher likelihood of R0 resection, improved OS, and no apparent increase in perioperative morbidity, this review supports routine caudate lobectomy in the surgical management of PHC. These results should be interpreted with caution given the lack of high-quality prospective data and the high probability of selection bias.
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