Distal technologies and type 1 diabetes management

Danny C. Duke, Samantha Barry, David V. Wagner, Jane Speight, Pratik Choudhary, Michael A. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Type 1 diabetes requires intensive self-management to avoid acute and long-term health complications. In the past two decades, substantial advances in technology have enabled more effective and convenient self-management of type 1 diabetes. Although proximal technologies (eg, insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors, closed-loop and artificial pancreas systems) have been the subject of frequent systematic and narrative reviews, distal technologies have received scant attention. Distal technologies refer to electronic systems designed to provide a service remotely and include heterogeneous systems such as telehealth, mobile health applications, game-based support, social platforms, and patient portals. In this Review, we summarise the empirical literature to provide current information about the effectiveness of available distal technologies to improve type 1 diabetes management. We also discuss privacy, ethics, and regulatory considerations, issues of global adoption, knowledge gaps in distal technology, and recommendations for future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-156
Number of pages14
JournalThe Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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