Differential localization of alternatively spliced hypoxanthine-xanthine- guanine phosphoribosyltransferase isoforms in Toxoplasma gondii

Kshitiz Chaudhary, Robert G K Donald, Manami Nishi, Darrick Carter, Buddy Ullman, David S. Roos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A unique feature of the Toxoplasma gondii purine salvage pathway is the expression of two isoforms of the hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosophoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) of the parasite encoded by a single genetic locus. These isoforms differ in the presence or absence of a 49-amino acid insertion (which is specified by a single differentially spliced exon) but exhibit similar substrate specificity, kinetic characteristics, and temporal expression patterns. To examine possible functional differences between the two HXGPRT isoforms, fluorescent protein fusions were expressed in parasites lacking the endogenous hxgprt gene. Immunoblot analysis of fractionated cell extracts and fluorescence microscopy indicated that HXGPRT-I (which lacks the 49-amino acid insertion) is found in the cytosol, whereas HXGPRT-II (which contains the insertion) localizes to the inner membrane complex (IMC) of the parasite. Simultaneous expression of both isoforms resulted in the formation of hetero-oligomers, which distributed between the cytosol and IMC. Chimeric constructs expressing N-terminal peptides from either isoform I (11 amino acids) or isoform II (60 amino acids) fused to a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of isoform II is both necessary and sufficient for membrane association. Metabolic labeling experiments with transgenic parasites showed that isoform II or an isoform II-CAT fusion protein (but not isoform I or isoform I-CAT) incorporate [ 3H]palmitate. Mutation of three adjacent cysteine residues within the isoform II-targeting domain to serines blocked both palmitate incorporation and IMC attachment without affecting enzyme activity, demonstrating that acylation of N-terminal isoform II cysteine residues is responsible for the association of HXGPRT-II with the IMC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22053-22059
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume280
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 10 2005

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Toxoplasma
Protein Isoforms
Hypoxanthine
Xanthine
Guanine
Membranes
Parasites
Chloramphenicol
Transferases
Amino Acids
Palmitates
hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase
Cytosol
Cysteine
Fusion reactions
Association reactions
Salvaging
Acylation
Genetic Loci
Fluorescence microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Differential localization of alternatively spliced hypoxanthine-xanthine- guanine phosphoribosyltransferase isoforms in Toxoplasma gondii. / Chaudhary, Kshitiz; Donald, Robert G K; Nishi, Manami; Carter, Darrick; Ullman, Buddy; Roos, David S.

In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 280, No. 23, 10.06.2005, p. 22053-22059.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chaudhary, Kshitiz ; Donald, Robert G K ; Nishi, Manami ; Carter, Darrick ; Ullman, Buddy ; Roos, David S. / Differential localization of alternatively spliced hypoxanthine-xanthine- guanine phosphoribosyltransferase isoforms in Toxoplasma gondii. In: Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2005 ; Vol. 280, No. 23. pp. 22053-22059.
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AB - A unique feature of the Toxoplasma gondii purine salvage pathway is the expression of two isoforms of the hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosophoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) of the parasite encoded by a single genetic locus. These isoforms differ in the presence or absence of a 49-amino acid insertion (which is specified by a single differentially spliced exon) but exhibit similar substrate specificity, kinetic characteristics, and temporal expression patterns. To examine possible functional differences between the two HXGPRT isoforms, fluorescent protein fusions were expressed in parasites lacking the endogenous hxgprt gene. Immunoblot analysis of fractionated cell extracts and fluorescence microscopy indicated that HXGPRT-I (which lacks the 49-amino acid insertion) is found in the cytosol, whereas HXGPRT-II (which contains the insertion) localizes to the inner membrane complex (IMC) of the parasite. Simultaneous expression of both isoforms resulted in the formation of hetero-oligomers, which distributed between the cytosol and IMC. Chimeric constructs expressing N-terminal peptides from either isoform I (11 amino acids) or isoform II (60 amino acids) fused to a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of isoform II is both necessary and sufficient for membrane association. Metabolic labeling experiments with transgenic parasites showed that isoform II or an isoform II-CAT fusion protein (but not isoform I or isoform I-CAT) incorporate [ 3H]palmitate. Mutation of three adjacent cysteine residues within the isoform II-targeting domain to serines blocked both palmitate incorporation and IMC attachment without affecting enzyme activity, demonstrating that acylation of N-terminal isoform II cysteine residues is responsible for the association of HXGPRT-II with the IMC.

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