Differences in within- and between-person factor structure of positive and negative affect: Analysis of two intensive measurement studies using multilevel structural equation modeling

Jonathan Rush, Scott M. Hofer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of emotional experience. The factor structure of the PANAS has been examined predominantly with cross-sectional designs, which fails to disaggregate within-person variation from between-person differences. There is still uncertainty as to the factor structure of positive and negative affect and whether they constitute 2 distinct independent factors. The present study examined the within-person and between-person factor structure of the PANAS in 2 independent samples that reported daily affect over 7 and 14 occasions, respectively. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor structure at both the within-person and between-person levels, with correlated specific factors for overlapping items, provided good model fit. The best-fitting solution was one where within-person factors of positive and negative affect were inversely correlated, but between-person factors were independent. The structure was further validated through multilevel structural equation modeling examining the effects of cognitive interference, daily stress, physical symptoms, and physical activity on positive and negative affect factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)462-473
Number of pages12
JournalPsychological Assessment
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Keywords

  • Affect
  • Emotion
  • Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis
  • Multilevel structural equation modeling
  • PANAS
  • Positive and Negative Affect Schedule

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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