Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression

Sara R. Jaffee, Terrie E. Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Eric Fombonne, Richie Poulton, Judith Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

328 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. Method: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). Results: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of-origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. Conclusions: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile- vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-222
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of General Psychiatry
Volume59
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Major Depressive Disorder
Depression
Parturition
Twin Studies
Motor Skills
Sex Offenses
Psychopathology
Psychiatry
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Jaffee, S. R., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Fombonne, E., Poulton, R., & Martin, J. (2002). Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(3), 215-222.

Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression. / Jaffee, Sara R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Fombonne, Eric; Poulton, Richie; Martin, Judith.

In: Archives of General Psychiatry, Vol. 59, No. 3, 2002, p. 215-222.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jaffee, SR, Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A, Fombonne, E, Poulton, R & Martin, J 2002, 'Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression', Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 215-222.
Jaffee, Sara R. ; Moffitt, Terrie E. ; Caspi, Avshalom ; Fombonne, Eric ; Poulton, Richie ; Martin, Judith. / Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression. In: Archives of General Psychiatry. 2002 ; Vol. 59, No. 3. pp. 215-222.
@article{c1ff852d5c18467fb7f576081cd1f855,
title = "Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression",
abstract = "Background: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. Method: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). Results: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of-origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. Conclusions: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile- vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.",
author = "Jaffee, {Sara R.} and Moffitt, {Terrie E.} and Avshalom Caspi and Eric Fombonne and Richie Poulton and Judith Martin",
year = "2002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "59",
pages = "215--222",
journal = "JAMA Psychiatry",
issn = "2168-622X",
publisher = "American Medical Association",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression

AU - Jaffee, Sara R.

AU - Moffitt, Terrie E.

AU - Caspi, Avshalom

AU - Fombonne, Eric

AU - Poulton, Richie

AU - Martin, Judith

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Background: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. Method: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). Results: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of-origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. Conclusions: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile- vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.

AB - Background: Family and twin studies suggest that juvenile-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) may be etiologically distinct from adult-onset MDD. This study is the first to distinguish prospectively between juvenile- and adult-onset cases of MDD in a representative birth cohort followed up from childhood into adulthood. Method: The study followed a representative birth cohort prospectively from birth to age 26 years. Early childhood risk factors covered the period from birth to age 9 years. Diagnoses of MDD were made according to DSM criteria at 3 points prior to adulthood (ages 11, 13, and 15 years) and 3 points during adulthood (ages 18, 21, and 26 years). Four groups were defined as (1) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 21); (2) individuals first diagnosed as having MDD in adulthood (n = 314); (3) individuals first diagnosed in childhood whose depression recurred in adulthood by age 26 years (n = 34); and (4) never-depressed individuals (n = 629). Results: The 2 juvenile-onset groups had similar high-risk profiles on the childhood measures. Compared with the adult-depressed group, the juvenile-onset groups experienced more perinatal insults and motor skill deficits, caretaker instability, criminality, and psychopathology in their family-of-origin, and behavioral and socioemotional problems. The adult-onset group's risk profile was similar to that of the never-depressed group with the exception of elevated childhood sexual abuse. Conclusions: Heterogeneity within groups of psychiatric patients poses problems for theory, research, and treatment. The present study illustrates that the distinction between juvenile- vs adult-onset MDD is important for understanding heterogeneity within depression.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036192694&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036192694&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 59

SP - 215

EP - 222

JO - JAMA Psychiatry

JF - JAMA Psychiatry

SN - 2168-622X

IS - 3

ER -