Background: Obesity and hemorrhagic shock following trauma are predictors of mortality but have conflicting effects on coagulation. Following hemorrhage, tissue injury and hypoperfusion lead to acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC), producing a hypocoagulable state. Inversely, obesity promotes clotting and impairs fibrinolysis to yield a hypercoagulable state. High rates of venous thromboembolism, organ failure, and early mortality may be caused by hypercoagulability in obese patients. We hypothesize that obesity prevents the development of ATC following injury-induced hemorrhagic shock.
Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250Y275 g) were fed a high-fat diet (32%kcal from fat) for 4 weeks to 6 weeks and diverged into obesityresistant (OR, n = 9) and obesity-prone (OP, n = 9) groups. Age-matched control (CON) rats were fed normal diet (10% kcal from fat, n = 9). Anesthetized ratswere subjected to an uncontrolled hemorrhage by a Grade V splenic injury to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg. Hypotension (MAP, 30Y40 mm Hg) was maintained for 30 minutes to induce shock. MAP, heart rate, lactate, base excess, cytokines, blood loss, and thrombelastography (TEG) parameters were measured before and after hemorrhagic shock.
Results: At baseline, OP rats exhibited a shorter time to 20-mm clot (K), and higher rate of clot formation (α angle), clot strength (maximal amplitude), and coagulation index, compared with the CON rats (p <0.05), indicating enhanced coagulation. Physiologic parameters following shock were similar between groups. In the CON and OR rats, shock prolonged the time to clot initiation (R) and K and decreased α angle and coagulation index (all p <0.05 vs. baseline). In contrast, shock had no effect on these TEG parameters in the OP rats. Maximal amplitude was the only TEG parameter affected by shock in the OP rats, which was decreased in all groups.
Conclusion: Obesity prevents the development of ATC following hemorrhage shock. Complications associated with obesity following hemorrhagic shock may be attributed to the preserved hypercoagulable state.
- Acute traumatic coagulopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine