OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to determine the accuracy of endorectal MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively identified 40 patients with an elevated serum PSA level and without a histologic diagnosis of prostate cancer who underwent endorectal MRI and MRSI at our institution. On the basis of MRI findings alone and then combined MRI and MRSI findings, a single experienced observer rated the presence or absence of prostate cancer in each side of the prostate on a 5-point scale (1 = definitely absent, 5 = definitely present). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were calculated using the hemiprostate as the unit of analysis. The presence or absence of cancer on subsequent endorectal sonographically guided sextant biopsy was used as the standard of reference. RESULTS. Biopsy revealed no cancer in 24 patients, bilateral cancer in 11, and unilateral cancer in five. The areas under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by hemigland was 0.70 for MRI alone and 0.63 for combined MRI and MRSI (no significant difference, p = 0.32). CONCLUSION. Endorectal MRI and MRSI are reasonably accurate for the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients with an elevated serum PSA level, but the remaining limitations suggest that MRI and MRSI should be used as a supplement rather than a replacement for biopsy using the current technology and diagnostic criteria.
- MR spectroscopic imaging
- Oncologic imaging
- Prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging