Purpose: We describe an effective multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and management of ureteroarterial fistulas that reduces morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods: Five ureteroarterial fistulas in 4 patients were studied with standard and provocative arteriography (arteriography combined with ureteral manipulation). After establishing the diagnosis, each lesion was treated with percutaneous embolic occlusion of the common iliac artery followed by extraanatomic arterial bypass grafting. All patients had chronic ureteral stenting, prior pelvic irradiation, prior pelvic surgery and intrapelvic malignancy, and all fistulas presented with urinary tract hemorrhage. Results: Standard arteriography was nondiagnostic but provocative arteriography demonstrated the fistula in each case. Successful embolization of the common iliac artery followed by extraanatomic arterial bypass grafting precluded the need for laparotomy and preserved ipsilateral renal function. Conclusions: Provocative arteriography followed by arteriographic common iliac artery embolization and extraanatomic bypass grafting was successful for the diagnosis and treatment of ureteroarterial fistulas. There was no mortality, limb loss or renal loss.
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