Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation supports severe cardiac or pulmonary failure. There are currently no competency-based standards for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation training. Methods: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation experts were interviewed using a structured interview. Responses were audio recorded, transcribed, and validated by respondents. Interviews were coded using grounded theory with a constant comparison method. Themes were developed and used to construct the entrustable professional activity, which was reviewed by the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation experts. Results: Nine experts were interviewed; all had experience with trainees. Interview themes identified include patient selection, circuit and medical management, multidisciplinary communication, problem-based learning and simulation, and entrustment decisions. Essential functions of the entrustable professional activity were patient selection, circuit management, cannula selection, responding to circuit emergencies/complications, anticoagulation management, weaning, and family/team communication. Conclusions: Essential functions of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation entrustable professional activity were defined using data from structured interviews. The resultant entrustable professional activity could be implemented by critical-care programs as a scaffolding for competency-based fellow training.
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